Lecture (Week 2)

Lecture (Week 2) - CHAPTER 4 C, H, O, N can be combined in...

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CHAPTER 4 C, H, O, N can be combined in many ways Vitalism Hydrocarbons Isomers o Structural/geometric, enantiomeric Structural: same chemical formula, similar chemical structure Geometric: same chemical formula, different chemical structure Enantiomers: mirror images o Rings (often not isomers at all) Four forms: 1. Length (methane – CH 4 ) 2. Branching (butane – C 4 H 10 ) 3. Double bonds (1-Butene, 2-Butene) 4. Rings (cyclohexane, benzene) Functional groups contribute to the molecular diversity of life (all are hydrophilic, and therefore increase solubility of organic compounds in water) 1. Hydroxyl: OH - , (-OH), alcohol 2. Carbonyl: C=O a. Aldehyde: carbonyl group on the end b. Ketone: carbonyl group between two C-atoms b.i. Isomeric aldehydes and ketones have very different properties 3. Amino groups: (-NH 2 ) a. Organic compounds known as amines; help form AMINO ACIDS 4. Sulfhydryl group: (-SH) a. Thiols b. Help stabilize protein structure 5. Phosphate group: (-OPO 3 2- ) a. Connects to carbon via its oxygen atoms b. Transferring energy between organic molecules c. Negatively charged, since protons dissociate from oxygen atom CHAPTER 5 Five major classes: o Carbohydrates Sugar; structural, nutritive, storage Typically a hydrate or carbon Asymmetric (optically active) Ketose v. aldose, # of carbons Types
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Monosaccharides: particularly glucose, are the major fuel for cellular work; raw material for synthesis of other monomers; amino acids, fatty acids; always cyclize to form rings
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course BISC 220L taught by Professor Herrera,mcclure during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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Lecture (Week 2) - CHAPTER 4 C, H, O, N can be combined in...

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