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Chapter 4 - CHAPTER 4 SOLUTIONS Strong Electrolytes fully...

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CHAPTER 4:- SOLUTIONS Strong Electrolytes: fully ionized in water - Soluble salts (NaCl, KBr) - Strong acids (HCl, HNO3) - Strong bases (NaOH, KOH) Weak Electrolytes: slightly ionize in water - HC 2 H 3 O 2 (weak acids) and NH 3 (weak base) - Acetic acid is ~1% ionized in water HC 2 H 3 O 2 H + + C 2 H 3 O 2 - Concentration and Molarity - Molarity (M) = moles solute / liters of solution EXAMPLES: Molarity of a solution where 45.5mg NaCL in 154.4mL 45.5mg x (1g/1000mg) x (1mol/(22.99+35.45)) 154.4 mL x (1L/1000mL) 5.04 x 10 -3 M NaCl How many moles Cl - ion in 114 mL of 1.85 M CaCl 2 114 mL x (1 L/1000mL) x (1.85 mol CaCl 2 /1L) x (2 mol Cl - / 1 mol CaCl 2 ) = 0.422 mol Cl - Dilution : very common to make it from more concentrated (stock) solutions; adding solvent but amount of solute stays the same M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 CoCl 3 Co 3+ + 3Cl - 1L x (0.5 mol / 1L) x (3 mol / 1 mol) = 1.5 mol Cl - Types of Chemical Reactions: 1) Precipitation reactions: an insoluble solid forms - Two homogenous solutions are combined to form a heterogeneous mixture of a solid/liquid - Type of reaction is observed as an instantaneous solid formation or cloudiness -
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