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0411 - Measuring Personality Inventories Self-report...

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Measuring Personality: Inventories - Self-report, typically true-false or rating scale format - Evaluating Inventories: o Reliability: consistency within the test Scores/responses should be similar over time with multiple tests or relatively similar responses Moment v. trait: you want data on how people feel overall as a trait, not in just that one moment o Validity: Correlate people’s answers with real-world behavior Correlating between different tests Test should be better/shorter: why your test is better than another existing test The “Big Five” Traits: only big five traits; everything else stems from these five traits - Extraversion: sociable, highly energetic o High: ‘life of the party’, thrives off of the energy o Low: less implying to socialize, reserved, not as energetic - Neuroticism: worrywart, score higher in pessimism (Freudian) o High: anxiety, depression - Conscientiousness: how responsible and reliable, following thru with obligations o High: usually good friends/employees - Agreeableness: how well you get along with others; willingness to compromise o High: good with group work, find a way to tie it all together; good problem solvers o Too high: ‘doormats’; issues with self-esteem and depression o Low: argumentative, stubborn, - Openness: how you think; intellectual curiosity - Based off of US/European culture, so different cultures have different such traits - Traits used to predict disorders and real world outcomes; not set in stone but can be useful
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Chapter 15 – Disorders Diagnosis of Disorders --- Personality Disorders --- Anxiety Disorders Defining Disorders - Four criteria to determine o Statistical rarity: if the majority of people do something, it’s not a disorder (difference between normal and abnormal behavior) E.g.: super tattooed/piercings: not really a disorder o Impairment: centered in other people’s minds Other people’s judgment of how you’re thinking and feeling o Distress: personal Your judgment of what you’re thinking and feeling o Potential Harm to Self or Others Suicidal tendencies Violent tendencies Self-destructive tendencies - Usually most disorders combine the four; depends on a lot of different data Categorizing Disorders - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4 th edition (DSM-IV) o Committee of mental health experts (largely MDs); very data driven and works highly in accordance with federal standards and insurance Axis I: major disorders Bi-polar, schizophrenia, substance abuse, etc. Axis II: personality disorders; mental impairment Extreme traits which become dysfunctional Makes people more prone to Axis I conditions Axis III: general medical conditions Chronic disease brings about stress/depression Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental stressors Usually from interviews and stuff; laid off, divorce, etc.
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