Lecture 11 - 4 Lecture 11 Cells: The Working Units...

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Lecture 11 Cells: Part I Chapter 7
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• What Features of Cells Make Them the Fundamental Unit of Life? • What Are the Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells? • What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells? Topics
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Cell theory was the first unifying theory of biology. • Cells are the fundamental units of life. • All organisms are composed of cells. • All cells come from preexisting cells. Cell Theory
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Implications of cell theory: • Functions of all cells are similar • Life is continuous • Origin of life was the origin of cells Cell Theory
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Cells are small (mostly). Exceptions: bird eggs, neurons, some algae and bacteria cells Cells: Working units of life
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Cells are small because they need a high surface area-to-volume ratio . Volume determines the amount of chemical activity in the cell per unit time. Surface area determines the amount of substances that can pass the cell boundary per unit time. Cells: Working units of life
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Figure 4.2 Why Cells Are Small (Part 1) Cells: Working units of life
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Figure 4.2 Why Cells Are Small (Part 2) Cells: Working units of life
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Most cells are < 200 μm in size. Minimum resolution of human eye is 200 μm. Microscopes improve resolution. Cells: Working units of life
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Two basic types of microscope: Light microscope —uses glass lenses and light. Resolution = 0.2 μm Electron microscope —electromagnets focus an electron beam. Resolution = 0.2 nm Cells: Working units of life Microscopes
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Cells: Working units of life Microscopes
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• Stains provide contrast between cell and surrounding media (Refractive index differences) • Phase-contrast microscope • Interference microscope • Dark-field microscope • Fluorescence microscope • Confocal scanning laser microscope Cells: Working units of life Microscopes
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• Transmission - Electrons are transmitted through a specimen - 1-D image • Scanning - Electrons scan the surface of the specimen - 2-D image Cells: Working units of life Electron Microscope
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Professor during the Spring '11 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Lecture 11 - 4 Lecture 11 Cells: The Working Units...

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