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Unformatted text preview: surface waves - cause damage to buildings, slowest seismogram - written or digital record of an earthquake material amplification - amplitude of shaking or vertical movement is greatly increased increased in unconsolidated sediments such as silt and clay deposits directivity - amplification effect resulting from intensity of seismic shaking that increases in direction of fault rupture earthquake cycle - drop in elastic strain after earthquakes, build-up of strain leading to next one liquefaction - transformation of water-saturated graunlar material from solid to liquid tsunami - large waves produced by sudden vertical displacement of ocean water Chapter 7 - Volcanic Activity magma - molten rock lava - magma that has emerged onto the surface shield volcano - largest, non-explosive, low silica content composite volcano - cone shaped, intermediate silica = explosive & runny...
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- Fall '11