GeologyVocab - • surface waves cause damage to buildings...

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Subject: Environmental Geology Session: Chapt 6-10, 16 Vocabulary at 10:41 PM Chapter 6 - Earthquakes epicenter - location of Earth's surface above focus • focus - point at depth where the rocks ruptured to produce an earthquake • moment magnitude - measure of the energy released by the earthquake • Modified Mercalli Scale - 12 divisions of intensity based on observations concerning severity of shaking during an earthquake • shake map - extent of potential damaging shaking following an earthquake • earthquake - when stress of rocks is forces them to rupture • fault - fracture or fracture system along which rocks has been displaced • tectonic creep - gradual displacement not accompanied by felt earthquakes • slow earthquakes - earthquakes produced by fault ruptures that last from days to months • P waves - compressional waves = faster, travel through solid, liquid, gas • S waves - shear waves = slower, travel only through solids
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Unformatted text preview: • surface waves - cause damage to buildings, slowest • seismogram - written or digital record of an earthquake • material amplification - amplitude of shaking or vertical movement is greatly increased increased in unconsolidated sediments such as silt and clay deposits • directivity - amplification effect resulting from intensity of seismic shaking that increases in direction of fault rupture • earthquake cycle - drop in elastic strain after earthquakes, build-up of strain leading to next one • liquefaction - transformation of water-saturated graunlar material from solid to liquid • tsunami - large waves produced by sudden vertical displacement of ocean water Chapter 7 - Volcanic Activity • magma - molten rock • lava - magma that has emerged onto the surface • shield volcano - largest, non-explosive, low silica content • composite volcano - cone shaped, intermediate silica = explosive & runny...
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2011 for the course GEOL 1011 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '11 term at GWU.

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GeologyVocab - • surface waves cause damage to buildings...

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