Week10-Survey-mulitplemethods-evaluation

Week10-Survey-mulitplemethods-evaluation - Week 10 Survey...

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Week 10 Survey Instrumentation (Chap. 10) Multiple Methods (Chap. 13) Evaluation Research (Chap. 14) 1
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Survey Instrumentation “the science of asking questions” The cognitive, communication, and social psychology theories of how people understand and answer survey questions : Unintentionally influenced by subtle aspects of the survey instrument and administration Ex. the numeric values on a rating scale Q. “How successful would you say you have been in life?” 1) From 0 (not at all successful) to 10 (extremely successful) 2) From -5 (not at all successful) to 5 (extremely successful) Don’t want expend the necessary efforts “no opinion” or “don’t know” 2
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Open-ended questions Advantages -showing respondents’ logic or thought process, opinions and feelings. . Disadvantages -difficult to code, costly process, degree of error (investigator’s bias), Irrelevant answer to researcher’s intent Closed-ended questions Advantages -requires less effort from the respondents, easy standardization, easily transferred into a computer format Disadvantages -difficult to develop good one, easily omit important responses, not corresponds to true feelings or attitudes “What do you feel is the most important issue facing the United States today?” 3
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Direct vs. Indirect Questions What is your total family income? What do you think is the ideal number of children for your family? Sex-role attitudes of male factory workers “Would you mind having a woman as supervisor?” Or “Do you believe your co-workers would mind having a woman as supervisor? *Projection 4
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Two structural requirements of closed ended questions The response categories should be exhaustive The answer categories must be mutually exclusive 1.Yes or No question “Have you even been threatened with a gun?” “Do you believe in life after death?” > Yes, No, (“don’t know”, “uncertain”, “both”) 2. Ordinal response scales - Likert scale: Strongly agree, Agree, Uncertain, Disagree, Strongly disagree (degree of agreement) - Excellent, Very good, Good, Fair, Poor 3. Numerical rating scales - 7 point scale Some people have complete confidence in the people running these institutions. Suppose these people are at one end of the scale at point number 1. Other people have No confidence at all. . Suppose these people are at the other end, at point 7.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 complete confidence no confidence 5
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Guidelines for Asking Questions 1. Make items clear “last week”: Sunday through Saturday or Monday to Friday? 2. Avoid double-barreled questions Ask respondents to agree or disagree with “The United States should abandon its space program and spend the money on domestic programs. 3. Avoid negative items “The United States should not recognize ….” “the following kinds of people should be prohibited from teaching in public schools” 4. Avoid biased items and terms (More support) (Less support) “Assistance to the poor” “Welfare” “Halting rising crime rate” “Law enforcement” “Solving problems of big cities” “Assistance to big cities” 6
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Week10-Survey-mulitplemethods-evaluation - Week 10 Survey...

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