Week5-Experiment - Week 5 Experiment -Lab experiment -Field...

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Week 5 Experiment -Lab experiment - Field experiment 1
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Reading: Correll, Shelly et al. 2007. “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 112, no. 5: 1297–338. Pager, Devah. 2003. “The Mark of a Criminal Record.” American Journal of Sociology. Vol.108, no.5: 937–75. Posted on Sakai> Resources> Extra readings 2
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Causal relationship 1. ASSSOCIATION = IV is associated with DV 2. DIRECTION OF INFLUENCE= cause happened before the effect 3. NO ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS = ruling out other rival explanations for the outcomes by controlling extraneous variables. Three requirements for the causal relationship between variables 3
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Experiments and Causal inference Experiments in social science aim to establish cause and effect relationships between independent and dependent variables To test a hypothesis that one variable affects another variable. Characteristics of Experimental Research Designs: 1. Often has an treatment (experimental) group and a control group 2. Manipulation of an independent variable amount of IV technique presence or absence of IV technique type of IV technique 1. Generally includes some means for controlling confounding variables Methods of controlling for potential confounding variables Random assignment Matching Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant 4
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5 Treatment group vs. Control group Experiments try to isolate a hypothesized causal variable by exposing one group to the suspected cause ( treatment group ), and exposing another group to either nothing at all or a placebo ( control group ). The independent variable is the suspected causal variable (also called the treatment variable in experiments). The dependent variable is the effect or outcome of the independent variable. Does watching Jon Stewart’s “The Daily Show” make viewers cynical about politics? Does watching violent videos make viewers more violent?
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6 Does watching Jon Stewart’s “The Daily Show” make viewers cynical about politics? Independent variable : whether or not they are regularly watching “The Daily Show” Dependent variable: the degree of cynicism about politics Experiment group: those watching the show Control group: those not watching the show
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How to Eliminate prior differences between control and treatment groups 1 . Random Assignment= assigning individual subject into the treatment and control groups randomly. Each subject has an equal chance of being in either group! : Individual characteristics that might confound the results will be evenly distributed between the two groups. 2. Matching Assignment= matching individual subjects on characteristics that seem to be related to the experimental outcome. Ex. Test which of two methods of teaching Chinese is most effective.
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This note was uploaded on 11/20/2011 for the course SOCIOLOGY 920:311 taught by Professor Phillips during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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Week5-Experiment - Week 5 Experiment -Lab experiment -Field...

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