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Week2-paradigm+_+question - Week2 1. 2.Researchparadigm...

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Week2 1.Why study research methods 2.Research paradigm  3.Research questions 1
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STUDENT: reports, journal articles, write term papers 1. The Benefit of Knowing Research Methods Research evidences in professional journals, newspapers, television, and other  medias….  How much can we trust them?  2 CAREER:  should keep up to date with all info based on research  (managing statistic info.)   AVERAGE CITIZEN: have to deal with various claims and  information based on research
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“Plastic surgery may also ease migraines”                                                  (NY TIMES Sep. 2, 2009)  “75% of doctors interviewed prescribed drug X for the relief of Y”     3 “A placebo-controlled surgical trial of the treatment of migraine headaches” by  Departments of Plastic Surgery and Neurology, Case Western Reserve University Who conducted or funded the research? 
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  -  Setting up a 900 number -  15,028 readers took up the invitation, paying a nominal fee to call  in  4 1993 Parade Magazine opinion polls about crime in America  Was the results based on a call-in survey representative of  U.S.  Public opinion? 
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OECD’s annual rankings of educations, national competitiveness, government efficiency… <OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development > Universities Rankings by U.S. News & World Report   Zagats’ Restaurants Ratings?   100 places to see before you die ?  The results contingent on METHODS! 5 The Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations
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SYSTEMATIC set of procedures and steps   ORGANIZED  a methods in going about research in a planned procedure, not a  spontaneous one  2. Research Paradigm What is research? “Systematic and organized way to find answer to questions” Is social science really a “SCIENCE”?   6
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“Conceptualization of the nature of the universe should always be viewed  with skepticism  and tested against observable facts ”    - Make a lot of observations and then generalize rules of nature.  - Inductive reasoning: From observation to theory.  (deductive reasoning: From theory to observation) Francis Bacon (1561-1620) Father of scientific methods,  empiricism, and inductive reasoning   7
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