Lecture+22 - Lecture 22 Sweeteners Sweeteners Have been...

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Lecture 22 Sweeteners
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Sweeteners Have been used by humans since the beginning of recorded time Honey probably the first recorded sweetener Function of sweeteners in the diet: Improve palatability of food Increase calorie content
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Major Vegetable Sources of Nutritive Sweeteners Sugar cane Sugar beet Maple trees corn
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Animal Sources of Sweeteners Honeybees Lactose in milk
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Types of Sweeteners Nutritive Contain Calories Sugars Sugar alcohols Nonnutritive Essentially calorie free
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Sugar Consumption in the U.S. USDA disappearance data: From 1925-1970—100 lbs./person/year From 1970-1985—sugar consumption decreased, replaced by a rise in corn sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) 1985 and beyond— Sugar and corn sweeteners intake approximately equal on a dry weight basis 62-65 lbs. each
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Sugar Consumption
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Nutritive Value Refined sugar contains energy Sucrose = 100% carbohydrate Sugar has only been directly linked with dental caries Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend sugars only be used in moderation.
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Health Concerns of Sugar Intake Refined sugars contain “empty Calories.” 4 kcal/gram 1 teaspoon of sugar contains ~15 kcal Foods which contain sugars may contain fat (9 kcal/gram) as well The only disease which is directly caused by sugar intake is dental cariogenesis. Directly related to exposure The longer sugar stays in the mouth, the greater the risk of dental caries.
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Sugar does not cause Diabetes Heart disease Cancer BUT– increased intake of sugar increases the risk of obesity, and therein is the link
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In foods, sugars are in solution When sugar is added to water and stirred Sugar dissolves—unsaturated (more sugar will dissolve if added) Saturated solution—no more sugar will dissolve, only way to increase solution is to increase temperature. (sugar collects on bottom of container) Supersaturated solution—more sugar is dissolved than is usually soluble at that particular temperature Supersaturated solution—produced by boiling mixture to dissolve all sugar and carefully cooled to room temperature without being disturbed. If not careful, sugar will crystallize
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This note was uploaded on 11/20/2011 for the course FOOD SCI 709:201 taught by Professor Tangel during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture+22 - Lecture 22 Sweeteners Sweeteners Have been...

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