Struggles+of+IP - The Struggles of Indigenous The Struggles...

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Unformatted text preview: The Struggles of Indigenous The Struggles of Indigenous Peoples for Recognition and Rights Dorothy L. Hodgson Professor of Anthropology Director, Institute for Research on Women Rutgers University Lecture Outline Lecture Outline Who are indigenous peoples? How and why did the concept of indigenous peoples emerge as a key trope for transnational advocacy and activism? What are the key demands of indigenous peoples today? What are the main challenges confronted by indigenous peoples in their efforts to demand justice? http://www.westga.edu/~gvanvale/map_of_indigenous_people.htm Primordialist/Essentialist Definitions of Primordialist/Essentialist Definitions of Indigenous Peoples As “first peoples” Demonstrate historical continuity with pre­ invasion or pre­conquest societies Consider themselves culturally and socially distinct from dominant sectors of society Primordialist/Essentialist Definitions of Primordialist/Essentialist Definitions of Indigenous Peoples As “first peoples” Demonstrate historical continuity with pre­ invasion or pre­conquest societies Consider themselves culturally and socially distinct from dominant sectors of society Structural/Constructivist Definition of Structural/Constructivist Definition of Indigenous Peoples Developed from involvement of African and Asian peoples Common history of economic, political, social and cultural marginalization by colonial and postcolonial states as “first peoples” Maasai herding cattle, 1986 Hadza hunter, 1997 These minorities suffer from common problems These minorities suffer from common problems which characterize the plight of indigenous peoples throughout the world. The most fundamental rights to maintain our specific cultural identity and the land that constitutes the foundation of our existence as a people are not respected by the state and fellow citizens who belong to the mainstream population. In our societies the land and natural resources are the means of livelihood, the media of cultural and spiritual integrity for the entire community as opposed to individual appropriation. Moringe Parkipuny 1989 Principle of Self­identification Principle of Self­identification Refusal by indigenous peoples to agree to a specific definition of “indigenous peoples,” especially by states who long sought to define and control them, and instead accept the involvement in the movement of any group who identifies themselves as indigenous Consequences of Conquest & Colonialism Consequences of Conquest & Colonialism Dislocation Death Disruption of subsistence economies Religious conversion Assimilation (often forced) Genocide: the killing of people because Genocide of their cultural or social identification Ethnocide : the destruction of the cultural and social beliefs and practices of a people Producing Nationalism Producing Nationalism Flag National anthem National dress Teach “national history” in schools Language policies Condemnation of certain religious and cultural practices and beliefs Economic integration Operation “Dress­Up”, Uhuru 17 June 1969, from Schneider 2006 Operation “Dress­Up”, Producing Nationalism Producing Nationalism Flag National anthem National dress Teach “national history” in schools Language policies Condemnation of certain religious and cultural practices and beliefs Economic integration Debating Mzee Parkipuny in Arusha, Tanzania, 2006 IP Advocacy Timeline IP Advocacy Timeline 1923: Chief Deskaheh tries to address UN in Geneva 1948: UN ratifies Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1975: Establishment of World Council of Indigenous Peoples (WCIP) 1982: UN establishes Working Group on Indigenous Peoples 1993: UN Year of the World’s Indigenous Peoples 1995­2004: UN Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples 2001: Establishment of the UN Permanent Forum in Indigenous Issues 2005­2014: UN Second Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples 2007: UN General Assembly ratifies Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Chief General Levi Deskaheh http://www.ailanyc.org/Deskaheh.jpg IP Advocacy Timeline IP Advocacy Timeline 1923: Chief Deskaheh tries to address UN in Geneva 1948: UN ratifies Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1975: Establishment of World Council of Indigenous Peoples (WCIP) 1982: UN establishes Working Group on Indigenous Populations 1993: UN Year of the World’s Indigenous Peoples 1995­2004: UN Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples 2001: Establishment of the UN Permanent Forum in Indigenous Issues 2005­2014: UN Second Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples 2007: UN General Assembly ratifies Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Key Rights from Declaration Key Rights from Declaration Art. 1: Freedom from discrimination, in particular that based on their indigenous origin or identity Art. 2: Right to self­determination Art. 3: Right to autonomy or self­government in internal and local affairs Art. 8: Right not to be subjected to forced assimilation or the destruction of their culture Art. 10: Not to be forcibly removed from their lands or territories. Need free, prior and informed consent before any relocation Art. 11: Right to maintain, protect and develop cultural property, including archeological and historical sites, artifacts, designs, ceremonies, technologies, and visual and performing arts and literature Art. 14: Right to education in their own language Art. 24: Right to traditional medicine ...
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