Review sheet notes part two

Review sheet notes part two - Review sheet notes part two...

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Review sheet notes part two 1.Charles Martel- grandfather of Charlemagne. Was mayor of the palace (=king’s top assistant) under the last Merovingians. Led the Franks against invading Muslims in the south (remember that after the death of Muhammad Islamic armies conquered North Africa, Spain, and tried to take France) at the battle of Poitiers or Tours in 732 (the battle occurred between these two towns and so is referred to by both names). Name means Charles the Hammer (from his battlefield prowess). 2.Pippin III/also spelled Pepin-Son of Charlemagne and founder of the Carolingian dynasty, which followed the Merovingian dynasty (both are names of families ruling the lands inhabited by the Franks) . He had been mayor of the palace (=king’s top assistant) under the previous king, but with the blessing of pope Zacharias (remember that the pope at this time was a major political as well as religious figure in Europe) seized the throne in 751. (This practice occurred during Biblical times as well; prophets such as Samuel would anoint Hebrew kings such as Saul upon accession to the throne) This bond between Franks and the Catholic Church guaranteed that the European identity would be stamped as Catholic. Walk around any European city today and count how many churches you see. Europe’s Christian identity ensured that the American identity would also be Christian (Americans are basically displaced Europeans). Ask yourself if an American who was not a proclaimed Christian could ever in the near future be elected president of the United States. 3.Charlemagne-most famous of the Carolingians. Son of Pepin III. Ruled Carolingian empire at its greatest territorial extent. Stretched from Poland to Spain to Italy to Scandinavia (this term refers to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway). The capital of the empire during his reign was Aachen, today located in Germany near the Rhine river. His palace was also located there, which you can still visit today. Know that he was proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by the pope in 800 in Rome on Christmas Day. This title was invented by the pope, and only served to indicate that Charlemagne’s empire was backed by the Catholic Church and was the best form of centralized government since the fall of Rome. Also know that he tried to improve the poor educational condition of his empire. Most people were illiterate. He sponsored the production of books, the copying of old Greek and Roman texts using a new and clearer script (our modern English script, the one I am using now, is essentially the one created during this time), and the establishment of new schools. Because his efforts represented a rebirth of learning, they are collectively called the Carolingian Renaissance. Renaissance just means rebirth in French. 4.Alcuin-the English monk whom Charlemagne invited to help lead his educational
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Review sheet notes part two - Review sheet notes part two...

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