a: By 430, the first invaders of the Empire, the Vandals, had moved to Africa, the richest grain
area of the Empire, which they took and held in defiance of imperial authority. They took to the
sea and their piratical attacks soon destroyed Roman commerce on the Western Mediterranean.
b: The Visigoths, who had sacked Rome in 410, were settled in Aquitaine by a treaty with the
imperial government. They soon threw off their federate status and established themselves as a
separate kingdom. Always seeking to operate in a favorable manner with the Romans, the Goths
nevertheless sought to expand: into Spain, against the Vandals and Alans left in the northwest of
the peninsula, and in every other direction against Roman provinces of the region, Tarraconensis,
Narbonnensis, and Lugdunensis -- the province of Lyon -- which stretched along the valleys of
the Rhone and Loire.
c: The Burgundians had been allowed to settle in Savoy, along the upper Rhone, perhaps as a
counterweight to the Visigoths.
d: North of the Loire, the rebel Bretons were poised and, the greatest Germanic force that would
emerge in the future, the Franks who were experiencing a slow but steady growth of population
that would eventually drive them to cross the lower Rhine and establish themselves in what is
2: The Empire had not responded well to this threat.
a: The Italian Provinces, especially Rome, had been favored at the expense of the more exposed
b: Rather than putting aside personal interests, the central government had become the site of
almost continuous conspiracy and treachery. Barbarians used this factionalism to advance their
own candidates for the throne, hoping to gain advantages thereby.
c: The heavy expenses of government; salaries, bribes, and, most particularly, defense, were met