germaninvasions - 1. If one wishes to consider German-Roman...

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1. If one wishes to consider German-Roman relations on a broad scale, there were actually four German "invasions" of the empire. A. Trade By about A.D. 70, the Romans had fixed their frontiers along the Rhine and Danube rivers, and manufacture had sprung up there to supply the garrisons. A steady trade with the Germans grew up and continued throughout the imperial period. The Roman silver solidus became the standard currency for both frontier Romans and the Germans beyond the frontier, and each group influenced the other in various and significant ways. Europe in 70 AD B. Military Recruiting Part of Diocletian and Constantine's reforms beginning in 285 was the deemphasis of the frontier legions and the formation of mobile armies of hired troops, primarily Germans, stationed in the interior. More economical than the frontier defense system, by decreasing Roman presence in the frontier districts this policy weakened Roman influences beyond imperial frontiers in the West and strengthened Germanic influences in the interior of the empire. C. Imperially-Sponsored Immigration From about 350 onwards, the western empire suffered from a shortage of manpower, largely because of a diminishing native population coupled with the inability to wage successful wars in order to capture prisoners to enslave. The government sponsored various types of immigration to compensate for this shortage and, under these policies, many Germans entered the empire on a
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permanent basis. 1. Laeti (pronounced LAY-tee) Foreigners were allowed in on an individual or family basis and assigned empty lands. They were expected to perform military service when called upon to do so. Note that the practice of offering a grant of land in exchange for military service would become a basic characteristic of medieval Europe. 2. Numeri (pronounced NOO-mehr-ee) Foreign warrior contingents hired by the Romans, the numeri were allowed to fight with their own weapons under their own leaders and to retain their own language and customs. Note the use of Germanic war- bands. 3.
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germaninvasions - 1. If one wishes to consider German-Roman...

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