PH+Lecture+5+Biomedical+Basis+of+Public+Health

PH+Lecture+5+Biomedical+Basis+of+Public+Health - Lecture 5:...

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Lecture 5: Biomedical Basis for Public Health Infectious Disease, Chronic Disease, Genetic Conditions
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Overview Infectious Diseases - Epidemiological Triangle - Chain of Infection - Herd Immunity Chronic Diseases - Cancer, Diabetes Genetic Factors
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Infectious Diseases Importance Epidemiological Triangle Chain of Infection Herd Immunity Disease levels
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Definitions A Communicable or Infectious disease is one that can be transmitted from one human to another or from animals to humans.
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Why Study These Diseases? Used as a barometer of the community’s health Most public health information comes from studying communicable disease
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Infectious Diseases – Major Killers in the Past Bubonic Plague – Black Death Tuberculosis Smallpox Yellow Fever Measles Influenza
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Great strides in dealing with infectious diseases by the 1960’s Immunizations Antibiotics Purification of water, sewage disposal and nutrition
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Spreading Infectious Diseases: Epidemiological Triangle (Triad) AGENT HOST ENVIRONMENT
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Concepts in Infectious Disease Agent, Host, Environment Chain of Infection Modes of Transmission Incubation Period Spectrum of Disease Herd Immunity
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Chain of Infection 1. Agent leaves the reservoir/host 2. Reservoir 3. Portal of Exit 4. Mode of transmission 5. Portal of Entry 6. Susceptible host
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1. Agent A pathogen such as a virus, bacteria or parasite, whose presence or absence is essential for the occurrence of a particular disease or condition.
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Infectious Agents Bacteria – TB, tetanus, syphilis Viruses – smallpox, polio, hepatitis, measles, rabies, AIDS, Parasites – malaria, tapeworm
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Chain of Infection 2. Reservoirs/Host Reservoir of an agent is the natural habitat in which it lives, grows and multiplies. Human reservoirs - can be outwardly ill or chronic carriers. Animal reservoirs - cows, raccoons, bats, rodents, etc. Environmental reservoirs – water, soil.
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Chain of Infection 3. Portal of Exit Route of escape of agent from reservoir Ex. > Respiratory secretions > Breaks in the skin
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Chain of Infection: 4. Modes of Transmission How pathogens get from reservoir to new host Direct Transmission Direct Contact - kissing; skin to skin Droplet Spread – sneezing, coughing, talking Indirect Transmission Airborne Vehicle-borne – food, blood, water Flea bite
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Chain of Infection 5. Portal of Entry to Host The route the agent uses to get into the new host: Respiratory tract Ingestion Dermal Blood borne
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Chain of Infection 6. Suceptible Host Organism that accepts the pathogen > humans > animals
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Break the Chain of Infection!
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Break the Chain, cont. Pathogens –
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PH+Lecture+5+Biomedical+Basis+of+Public+Health - Lecture 5:...

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