PH+Lecture+7+Social+and+Behavioral+Factors

PH+Lecture+7+Social+and+Behavioral+Factors - Lecture 7:...

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Lecture 7: Social and Behavioral Factors in Public Health
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Overview Health Behavior - SES - Psychological Factors - Three models Injuries - Motor Vehicle, Firearms, Occupational
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Overview Maternal and Child Health - Prenatal Care - Birth Control Vaccines - Live Attenuated - Inactivated - Controversy - Childhood Illnesses
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Behavior and Social Environment As social creatures, humans are affected by their social environment From a public health perspective, it is more efficient to try to change group behaviors than to change people’s individual behavior. Most important predictor of health is socioeconomic status (SES) which includes income, education, employment, etc…
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Behavior, cont. Health is also affected by gender, marital status, race and ethnicity In the US, racial and ethnic minorities have poorer health than whites * Life expectancy 2005: All races – 75.2 yrs. for men and 80.4 yrs. for women * Blacks have higher infant mortality rates than whites
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Life Expectancy At birth, 2005: All Races White Black M 75.2 75.7 69.5 F 80.4 80.8 76.5 At birth, 1900: All Races White Black M 46.3 46.6 32.5 F 48.3 48.7 33.5 Data from CDC
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Impact of SES Groups with lower SES have the highest mortality rates Health disparities are a big concern to public health practitioners Nutrition Sanitation
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Impact of SES Lack of access to medical care Higher SES leads to more healthy behavior
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Psychological Factors which Influence Health Stress * Increased after the death of a spouse, loss of job, divorce, etc… * Increases illness like cold, heart disease * Money, education, family/friends, can help alleviate stress
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Factors Influencing Health, cont. Social Support * Alameda study (1965) which showed relation between individual’s health status/risk of dying and the extent of social network. Follow-up in 1974 * Unclear scientifically why social support improves health indicators
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Psychological Models of Health Behaviors Health belief model – likeliness to change behavior when faced with a health threat (reactive) * I am vulnerable to the threat * The threat is serious * By taking action I can protect myself Locus of control theory (self-efficacy)- People’s belief that they can control their lives (proactive) Theories are used for programs to promote behavior change
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Ecological Model of Health Behavior Looks at how social environmental, including personal, organizational, and community factors, support and maintain unhealthy behaviors Impact at various levels including personal, community and public policy
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Changing the Environment Remember the public health focus on the community, not individual. Changing the environment is more effective than
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PH+Lecture+7+Social+and+Behavioral+Factors - Lecture 7:...

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