sikh - The Sikh Religion The Sikh Religion By Kayla M Hill...

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Unformatted text preview: The Sikh Religion The Sikh Religion By Kayla M. Hill Introduction to the Study of Religion The Sikh Religion The Sikh Religion Sikhism is “a monotheistic Sikhism religion that rejects caste distinctions, idolatry, and ascetics and is characterized by living righteous lives as active members of society.” active Sikhism began in the Sikhism fifteenth century in Northern India . I ndia The system of religious The philosophy and expression that embodies Sikhism has been traditionally known as the Gurmat, meaning the Gurmat meaning counsel of the gurus, or the Sikh Dharma. The term Sikh comes from The the Sanskrit root sisya, sisya meaning “disciple” or “learner”, or siska, meaning siska meaning “instruction”. “instruction”. Sacred Stories: Nanak Sacred Stories: Nanak “Sikh tradition states that at the age of thirty, Nanak went missing Sikh and was presumed to have drowned after going for one of his morning baths to a local stream called the Kali Bein. Three days Kali Three later he reappeared and would give the same answer to any question posed to him: "There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim" (in Punjabi, "nā kō hindū nā kō musalmān"). It was from this (in "). moment that Nanak would begin to spread the teachings of what was then the beginning of Sikhism Although the exact account . of his itinerary is disputed, he is widely acknowledged to have made four major journeys, spanning thousands of kilometres. The first tour being east towards Bengal and Assam, the second Bengal A ssam the south towards Ceylon via Tamil Nadu, the third north towards Ceylon Tamil the Kashmir, Ladakh and Tibet, and the final tour west towards K ashmir L adakh Tibet and Baghdad and Mecca.” Baghdad Mecca The Ten Gurus The Ten Gurus The term guru means guide, The mentor, or teacher. mentor, The traditions and The philosphies of the Sikh religion were established by ten specific gurus between the years 1507 – 1708 the Each guru added and Each reinforced the teachings and messages taught by the previous gurus and appointed a successor after death successor Nanek Dev was the first of Nanek the ten gurus and the founder of the Sikh religion of The chart on the following The page lists all ten gurus, their date of birth, date of guruship, date of death, and their age when they died. their Name Date of Date Birth Birth Guruship Date of Date Death Death Age 1 2 Nanak Dev 4/14/1969 8/20/1507 9/22/1539 69 Angad Dev 3/31/1504 9/7/1539 3/29/1552 48 3 Amar Das 5/5/1479 3/26/1552 9/1/1574 95 4 Ram Das 9/24/1534 9/1/1574 9/1/1581 46 5 Arjan Dev 4/15/1563 9/1/1581 5/30/1606 43 6 Har Gobind 6/19/1595 5/25/1606 2/28/1644 48 7 Har Rai 1/16/1630 3/3/1644 10/6/1661 31 8 Har Krishan 7/7/1656 10/6/1661 3/30/1664 7 9 Teg Bahadur 4/1/1621 3/20/1665 11/11/1675 54 10 Gobind Singh 12/22/1666 11/11/1675 10/7/1708 41 Har Krishan died at age seven from a small pox epidemic The Ten Gurus (cont.) The Ten Gurus (cont.) Nanek Dev Angad Dev Nanek Dev was the first Guru Nanek for the Sikh religion. “He visited most of the known religious places and centres of worship.” of “A ngad Dev invented the Angad present form of Gurmukhi script – which became the medium of writing in the Punjab language” Punjab The Ten Gurus (cont.) The Ten Gurus (cont.) Har Rai was the seventh Har Guru. “He established three important preaching missions called bakhshishes for the spread of Guru Nanak's teaching.” teaching.” Guru Amar Das Guru institutionalised the the free communal kitchen known to Sikhs as the langer – which was open to serve all day and all night. all Har Rai Amar Das The Ten Gurus (cont.) The Ten Gurus (cont.) Arjan Dev (on the left) Har Gobind “The Guru laid the The foundation of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in the middle of the tank of A mritsar. He reminded his followers that humility should be a great virtue.” should Har Gobind“transformed the Har Sikh fraternity by introducing martial arts and weapons for the defense of the masses following his father's martyrdom .” martyrdom Sikhism: Monasticism Sikhism: Monasticism & the Ultimate Realty Monasticism Sikhism specifically Sikhism forbids the practice of monasticism – hence the reason there are no Sikh monk conclaves or brotherhoods. Sikhism is a monotheistic Sikhism religion – meaning they believe in one true God believe God (Ik Onkar) Onkar is a variation of the Onkar monosyllable Om (also known as anahata nada, the unspoken sound). unspoken Guru Nanak Dev prefixed the Guru numeral one (ik) to Onkar – making it “Ik Onkar” or “Ekankar” to emphasize God’s “oneness” God’s The only name which can be The said to truly fit God’s transcendent state is Sat or Satnam (Sanskrit ‘satya’ Satnam meaning Truth) the changeless & timeless reality changeless Some Attributes to Onkar (God) Some Attributes to Onkar (God) Only God is worth of worship & meditation at all times. He is the Creator but also the Destroyer. God is Compassionate & Kind. With His Grace. He comes to dwell within the mind & body. He is merciful & wise. He is the ultimate Protector of all beings. Only with His Will can pain, poverty, disease and hardships be Only removed from ones life. removed God is everywhere. God is…. God is…. not identical with the not “transcendent & alluniverse. The universe exists universe. pervasive at the same time. & is contained in Him. God Transcendence & immanence is immanent in the created are two aspects of the same world, but is not limited to it. world, single Supreme Reality. The “Nirbhau” (without fear) & Reality is immanent in the (without “nirvair” (whithout rancour entire creation, but the (whithout or enemy) – He has no creation as a whole fails to ‘sarik” (rival). contain God fully.” ‘sarik” contain Karta Purakh, the Creator Nirbhau not only the Nirbhau Being – he created the indicated fearlessness but spatial-temporal universe also refers to the absence from His own Self. Universe of fearfulness. is His own emanation. is God is….(cont.) God is….(cont.) I t also implies sovereignty & It unquestioned exercise Will. unquestioned Nirvair implies, besides absence of enmity, the positive attributes of compassion & impartiality. impartiality. He loves His handiwork & is He the Dispenser of impartial justice, dharamniau. is Akal Murat, the Eternal Being. is Akal the “The timelessness involved in the negative epithet akal has made it popular in Sikh tradition as one of the same of God, the Timeless One.” One.” is Ajuni, Un-incarnated, & Saibhan is Ajuni Un-incarnated, (Sanskrit svayambhu), Self(Sanskrit existent. The Primal Creator existent. Himself had no creator. God by Himself is the one Ultimate God Transcendent Reality, Nirguna (without attributes), Timeless, Boundless, Formless, EverBoundless, existent, Immutable, All-by existent, Himself and even Unknowable in His entirety. The only nomenclatures that can The rightly be applied to Him in this state of sunn (Sanskrit, sunya or void) are Brahman & Parbrahamn or the pronouns He & Thou. or Aspects of Human Life Aspects of Human Life Sikhism believes in karma (Action) Sikhism and the cycle of birth & death. and “Human life is seen as the Human opportunity for achieving mukti, or freedom from the cycle of rebirth, based upon the karma (actions and their consequences) of this life.” Some aspects this are: Some – The barriers to this are seen as: The kaumai (self-centeredness) kaumai kam (lust) kam karodh (anger) karodh lobh (greed) lobh moh (worldly attachment) moh hankar (pride) – To overcome these barriers, the To following qualities are needed: santokh (contentment) santokh dan (charity) dan daya (kindness) daya parsanta (happiness) parsanta nimarta (humility) nimarta Sikhism has identified five stages Sikhism on the journey to the divine: – Dharam Khand (realization of Dharam spiritual duty) – Gian Khand (divine Gian knowledge) – Saram Khand (wisdom and Saram effort) – K aram Khand (divine grace) Karam – Sach Khand (truth) Sach – Worship Worship Aspects of Human Life (cont.) Aspects of Human Life (cont.) “The deeds that the persons have done in the past have The become their Karma which can not be erased and would lead to pleasure and pain, deliverance or transmigration, except when one turns away from one’s self with a conscious effort, led by Gurus word with faith in Gods grace, when the old writ is washed off and one merges ones will in God… Sikhism preaches that in the present life itself it is possible to realize the God by conducting himself truly on the path shown by the Guru and going through the cycle of births is not essential.” through The Sikh Theodicy The Sikh Theodicy Sikhs believe that one of the causes of Sikhs evil & suffering in the world is due to people turning from God & bringing about evil with their self-interest, egotism & greed. , People becom caught up in the world e People of m (illusion) by becom aya ing preoccupied with satisfying their own desires – the end result is suffering. I n Sikhism, the world is transitory In and a passing phase. However, it is viewed as relatively real. God is viewed as the only reality, but within God exist both conscious souls and unconscious objects; these created objects are also real. Ignorance & selfishness is know as Ignorance haumai in the Sikh religion. In the Sikh religion, hum ility (or In Nim rata) is considered a great virtue. Humility is developed by erasing its opposite, which Sikhs call haumai or self-centered pride, haumai or ego. It is this ego which stands in the way of God realization. It can be erased by seva, or selfless service, and com plete subm ission to Waheguru, or God. A Sikh serves God by serving other people. Not all suffering can be explained, but Not Sikhs believe that there is a reason for everything, & “that faith in God enables people to endure hardship. Suffering on behalf of others by defending them or alleviating their situation is seen as right & necessary.” situation The Afterlife The Afterlife Sikhs believe in reincarnation Sikhs until the karma is resolved and has merged with God. A fter death, Sikhs are After cremated & their ashes are spread over a river or in the sea. sea. M ourners go to the Gudwara to Mourners offer prayers for the deceased. offer A Saptah (7 day reading) or Saptah Dusehra (10 day reading) takes place at the house of the deceased. deceased. On the last day of the readings On the “Sadd Ramkali” (the story of the third Guru’s death, the transitory nature of life & the acceptance of God’s will) is read. No memorials are erected for No the deceased. the Ways to Salvation Ways to Salvation “The Gurus taught that if deliverance is sought in the proper manner all will eventually receive it…most Sikhs are uncertain of salvation. Grace is viewed as something, which God bestows on salvation. those he chooses. A man or a woman receives salvation when it is their destiny to do so. But given enough time and rebirths all will eventually reach that point. Sikhs believe that there is no such thing as eternal damnation; all will eventually achieve deliverance from the bondage of earthly life. Therefore ultimately no one is lost but is reunited with the divine absolute.” Sikh Demographics Sikh Demographics Sikhism is the 5th largest Sikhism religion in the world having over 23 million adherents world wide world More than 90% of all Sikhs More in Punjab, India – more than 65% of the states population is made up of Sikh followers is However, Sikhs are only 2% However, of the Indian population of Sikhs make up 10 to 15% of Sikhs all ranks in the Indian army & a fifth of its officers fifth Prior to the partition of India Prior partition Sikhs lived in what is today called the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Pakistan. Am igration beginning in the 19th century led to 19 comm unities rising up all over the world including: Canada, the UK, the Middle East, East Africa, Southeast A sia, and (more recently) Western Europe, Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US. US. Sikh Facts Sikh Facts The partition of India marked The partition the independence of India from the British Empire from I t also lead to the establishment It of the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and the Union of I ndia (later the Republic of India) on August 14th and 15th I ndia) of 1947. of There are smaller off-shoot There groups of Sikhism (such as Namdharis, Ravidasis, and Uclasis). Uclasis). The Sikh religion discourages The adherents from going on pilgrimages – however, Sikhs are permitted to undertake pilgrimage to Sikh shrines in Punjab on special occasions Punjab The two shrines of most The importance are: Nankana and Samadhi. Samadhi. Sikh facts (cont.) Sikh facts (cont.) Nankana Sahib (also known as Nankana Rapir and Rai-Bhoi-diRapir Talwandi) is a small town in Talwandi) the Pakistan province of Punjab and is known as the most sacred pilgrimage site. sacred Samadhi (also a ritual of Samadhi consciousness) is the Hindi word for a structure commemorating the dead but does not always have a body of the deceased. the They are often built to They honor people regarded as saints or gurus in the Hindu religion. religion. The m sacred shrine in all The ost of the Sikh religion is Harimadir Sahib in Armistar – famously known as the Golden Temple Golden The Sikh’s “house of The worship” is the Gudwara (also Gurduara) meaning Gurduara meaning “the doorway to God.” “the There are hundreds of There Gudwara placed all over the world. world. Sikh Ethics Sikh Ethics Marriage M arriages are seen to bring Marriages together two families – the choice is made from a similar caste (the couple will be matched in social grouping). The practices of: sutee (a The widow throwing herself on her husband’s funeral pyre), female infanticide & purdah (separation & seclusion of women) are forbidden. Widows are allowed to Widows remarry. remarry. I nterfaith marriage is allowed Interfaith as long as it does not require conversion on the Sikh’s part. Sexuality Sexuality Sikhs are expected to avoid sex Sikhs before marriage. Pornography & prostitution are Pornography seen as wrong & likely to lead to humai (unacceptable behavior). behavior). (Traditionally) homosexuality (Traditionally) is seen as unacceptable . is Contraception is acceptable. Sterilization is only acceptable Sterilization if it is necessary because of health risks. health Abortion is unacceptable. Divorce is permitted but Divorce uncommon. Sikh Ethics (cont.) Sikh Ethics (cont.) “The body & life are seen to be something that is given by God.” The Body & Physical Care The body should be looked The after & maintained in a natural state. Drugs, tobacco & alcohol are Drugs, strictly forbidden. strictly Cutting or shaving of any body Cutting hair is forbidden. hair Suicide & Euthanasia The Sikhs believe that no one The has the right to take a life. Suicide because of despair is Suicide looked on with compassion. looked Euthanasia is unacceptable. Euthanasia Wealth & Charity Wealth Sikhs are taught that everything Sikhs given is also given to God. given They are taught to give a tenth They of their savings to charity. of L earning to give is taught in the Learning Gudwara where everyone takes parts in chores such as sweeping, cooking & cleaning. Taking care of people in need Taking is important. (Guru Nanak set up a center for the care of lepers). lepers). Sacred Art: Sacred Art: The Golden Temple The Golden Tem is ple The located is located Armistar (in Punjab, India), which means “Pool of the Nectar of Immortality,” the holiest city in Sikhism in I t is a symbol of spiritual and It historical traditions of the Sikhs. I t is known as a palace of It pilgrimage and a sacred piece of art. of The Golden Temple (cont.) The Golden Temple (cont.) The idea of establishing The this place of pilgrimage was formed by guru Amar Das. formed The m reason Amar Das The ain decided to establish the palace was for the continuity of tradition of founding new places for the Sikh congregations as followed by his predecessors. his The official name of the The Temple is Hamandir Sahib or Darbar Sahib which means, literally, “The Abode of literally, The God.” God.” Khalsa Khalsa Khalsa means ‘Pure’ Khalsa means The name given by [Guru] The Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptized/initiated by taking Amrit A mrit Amrit is a Sanskrit word that literally means “without death” literally [In Sikhism] Amrit is the name [In of the holy water used in the baptism ceremony (Amrit baptism Amrit Sanskar or Amrit Chhankhna) Amrit The first time the ceremony The took place was on Baisakhi Baisakhi (see annual holidays) which fell on April 13, 1699 fell the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the day was in 1999 with thousands of religious gatherings all over the world world Khalsa (cont.) Khalsa (cont.) “The Khalsa began when Guru Govind Singh, holding a sword, The asked a crowd of Sikhs which ones would die for their faith and for them to step into a tent. One m (name Bhai Daya Ram, an later known as Bhai Daya Singh) walked into the tent and the Guru followed. A few seconds later only the Guru emerged holding his sword, covered in blood. After asking if there were any more, four people (Bhai Dharam Singh,Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Mohkam Singh, and Bhai Sahib Singh) strode into the tent, ready to be slaughtered for their faith. It was then that the crowd found out that none of the five men were actually killed, and these five men became The Khalsa Brotherhood. They were baptized and they could then baptise others that follow the "Five K s" and the other requirements into the brotherhood (it should be noted that no restrictions exist for the baptism of females into the Khalsa).” K halsa).” The Five K’s The Five K’s The five Ks are five symbols of faith that baptized Sikhs must wear at all times at the wear command of the tenth guru, command Gobind Singh. The Five Ks are not merely symbols but articles of faith which collectively form the external visible symbols to identify and clearly, outwardly advertise and display one's commitment. commitment. The Five K’s are: The – K achh (Special designed Kachh undergarment), – Kesh (uncut hair) – K ara (iron bangle), Kara – Kirpaan (strapped sword) – Kangha (wooden comb) The Five K’s (cont.) The Five K’s (cont.) Kachh (Katchera or Kaccha) is a pair of knee length shorts. They are slightly longer type of underwear and is symbolic of continence and a high moral character high Kesh means that no Sikh never cuts or trims any hair to indicate the perfection of God's creation. perfection Kara (see picture to the right) is a special iron bracelet that is worn on the wrist of the dominant hand. The K ara is the Guru's own symbolic ring to all his Sikhs signifying their unbreakable link with the Guru as well as among themselves. The circle is also a symbol of controlling feelings and practice as well as a constant reminder to the Sikh of complete behavior in the event of weakness. The Five K’s (cont.) The Five K’s (cont.) Kirpan comes from the Kirpan words Kirpa (meaning an act words of kindness) and aan of (meaning honour and respect) (meaning is the symbol of power and freedom of spirit. All baptized Sikhs should wear a short form of Kirpan (approx. 6" to 9" long) on their body. To call it a dagger or knife is rather insulting to this article of faith, which functions quite differently from the other two. The blade is made of iron. The Five K’s (cont.) The Five K’s (cont.) The Kangha (also Kanga) is a small wooden comb that Sikhs use twice a day. It should be worn in the hair all the time. Combs help to clean hair and remove tangles from it, as well as being a symbol of cleanliness to the Sikhs. Combing their hair reminds them that their lives should be tidy and organized. be Basic Beliefs Basic Beliefs Ik Onkaar There is only one God Sat Naam His Name is Truth Karta Purkh He is the Creator Nir Bhau He is without fear Nir Vair He is without hate Akaal Moorat He is beyond time (Immortal) Ajooni He is beyond birth & death Saibhang He is self-existent Sikh Sacraments Sikh Sacraments “Sikhs are not required to Sikhs renounce the world, & aspire to be the best but not be obsessed by the act, wanting the best but not craving to accumulate.” accumulate.” Nanak Dev summed up the Nanak basis of Sikh lifestyle into three principles: three Naam Japo Kirat Karni Wand kay Shako Naam Japo refers to meditation, Naam singing hymns, and esp. the chanting of Waheguru, which Waheguru which means Wonderful Lord. Wonderful Kirat Karni means to earn an Kirat honest, pure & dedicated living by exercising one's God-given skills, abilities, talents and hard labour for the benefit & improvement of the individual, their family and society as a whole. as Wand kay Shako is a technique & Wand method which means to share what you have & to consumer it together as a community. as Sikh Sacraments: Sikh Sacraments: The Five Evils The common evils far exceed The in number, but a group of five of them came to be Sikhism preaches that there is Sikhism identified because of the one God but that he is obstruction they are believed formless. That is why the to cause in main’s pursuit of Sikhs do not worship idols. Sikhs the moran & spiritual path. the The five evils are the five The The five evils are: major weaknesses of the Kam (lust & addiction) Kam (lust human personality at Krodh (wrath, rage, & Krodh variance with its spiritual anger) anger) essence. essence. Lobh (materialistic greed) Lobh (materialistic Moh (attatchment & Moh worldly infatuation) worldly Ahankar (ego & pride) Ahankar (ego Sacred Sacraments: Sacred Sacraments: The Five Virtues “I n Sikhism, the Five Virtues In Five are fundamental qualities which one should develop in order to reach Mukti (to Mukti reunite or m erge with God).” reunite The Five Virtues are: The Five Sat Santokh Daya Nimrata Pyare Sat is the virtue of truthful Sat living – practicing righteousnss, honesty, justice, impartiality, & fair play. Santokh (contentment) is Santokh freedom from ambition, envy, greed, & jealousy – without contentment it is impossible to acquire peace of mind. of The Five Virtues (cont.) The Five Virtues (cont.) Daya (compassion) is an considering another’s difficulty or sorrow as one’s own and helping to relieve it as far as possible – compassion also includes overlook imperfections & mistakes of others. exercise mistakes which involves which Nimrata is humility, Nimrata benevolence, & humbleness benevolence, Pyare requires Sikhs to be Pyare filled with the love of God. Rites of Passage Rites of Passage Other rites of passage: How children get their names: A fter a child is born the parents After visit the gurdwara, pray and open the Guru Granth Sahib at random. The first letter of the first hymn on that page is taken as the first letter of the child's name. The second name of a boy is usually Singh and for a girl is Kaur. These names were given to all Sikhs by the tenth Guru on the first Vaisakhi. Guru The Khande di Pahul or Amrit The ceremony is an initiation bringing Sikhs into membership of the Khalsa. of The marriage ceremony, based on the potential of creating a happy and loving home together, takes place in the gurdwara with the couple sitting in front of the Guru Granth Sahib. Granth Sikhs are usually cremated and Sikhs the daily bedtime prayer is read during the cremation. during Annual Holidays There are several other There holidays that the Sikh religion celebrates but these are some of the major holidays. holidays. Diwali* Guru Nanak’s Birthday * Guru Gobind Singh’s Birthday Guru Teg Bahadur’s Guru Martyrdom Day M artyrdom Baisakhi* Diwali (Deepavali): Diwali Observed by Hindus, Sikhs, & Observed Jains J ains Significance: to celebrate life & Significance: strengthen relationships strengthen Celebrated on the New Moon Celebrated day of Kartika – the celebrations begin two days before & end two days after the date date Decorate homes with lights, Decorate lighting fireworks, & gift giving giving * Described in the following pages Annual Holdays (cont.) Annual Holdays (cont.) Guru Nanak’s Birthday: Guru Nanak Jayanti is celebrated Guru by the Sikh com munity all over the world and is one of the m ost im portant festivals in the Sikh calendar. calendar. The Birthday of Guru Nanak Sahib The falls on Kartik Puranm ashi – full m oon day of the m onth Kartik. (Gregorian Calendar – in Novem ber) Novem The birthday celebration usually The lasts three days. Generally two days before the Generally birthday, Akhand Path (a fortyAkhand eight-hour non-stop reading of the eight-hour Guru Granth Sahib, the holy book Guru the of the Sikhs) is held in the Gurdwaras. Gurdwaras. Vaisakhi (Baisakhi): L ong established harvest festival – Long has religious significance to Sikhs & Hindus Hindus It falls on the first day of the It Vaisakh m Vaisakh onth in the solar Nanakshahi calendar, which corresponds to April 13th in the corresponds Gregorian calendar, except every thirty-sixth year when it falls on April 14th. A pril V aisakhi is one of the holiest days Vaisakhi in Sikhism com emorating m Khalsa, the establishm of ent Khalsa the religion. religion. Sacred Texts Sacred Texts There are two primary There sources of scripture for the Sikhs: the Gurū Granth Sāhib and the Dasam Granth. The Gurū Granth Sāhib may be referred to as the Ādi Granth & the two terms are often used synonymously. The Gurū Granth Sāhib: The Gurū Granth Sāhib refers The to the final version of the scripture created by Gobind Singh. Singh. Contains compositions by the Contains first five gurus. first Contains the traditions and Contains teachings of sants (saints). sants Consists of the original Ādi Consists Granth with the addition of Guru Teg Bahadur's hymns. Guru Believed that it was decreed by Believed Gobind Singh that the Granth was to be considered the eternal, living guru of all Sikhs. eternal, A ll text within the Granth is All known as gurbānī - revealed by God directly, & the authors wrote it down for the followers. wrote Sacred Texts (cont.) Sacred Texts (cont.) Dasam Granth: Formerly The Book of the Tenth Formerly Master Master A n eighteenth-century An collection of miscellaneous works generally attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. The teachings of Gobind Singh The were not included in Gurū Granth Sāhib, the holy book of the Sikhs, & instead were collected in the Dasam Granth. collected Ādi Granth: literally, The First Volume literally, The Refers to the version of the Refers scripture created by Arjun Dev in 1604. in The original version of the Ādi The Granth is known as the kartārpur bīṛ kartārpur The Gurmukhī script was The standardised by Arjun Dev for use in the Sikh scriptures & is thought to have been influenced by the Śāradā & Devanāgarī scripts scripts Dasam Granth & Dasam Granth & Gurū Granth Sāhib Dasam Granth Gurū Granth Sāhib Gurū Sikh Denominations Sikh Denominations There really are not any There American Sikhs follow There There denominations in Sikhism but Y ogi Harbhajan Singh, the there are different groups and dress in all white, know little subgroups, esp. in the U.S. of the Punjab language & subgroups, their turbans are worn by Sikhs in the United States are Sikhs both men & women. both usually Indian immigrants The American Sikhs refer to that speak Punjab & have The particular customs and dress their group as 3HO (Healthy, that specific to Punjab, India. Happy, Holy Organization) that Happy, However since the 60’s there I ndian Sikhs & American However Indian has been a group generally Sikhs are generally accepting called the American Sikhs of one another & visit each called others’ gudwaras. others’ Works Cites Works Cites “Aspects of Hum Life and World Religions, The” [Online]. October 26,2007. (viewed). an http://faithcomm ons.org/the_aspect_of_hum an_life_and_world_religions Dictionary.com Dictionary.com “Samadhi.” [Online]. Septem 2007. (viewed). ber http://dictionary.reference.com /browse/Sam adhi “Sikhism.” [Online] Septem 2007. (viewed). ber http://dictionary.reference.com /browse/sikhism “Fast Facts on Sikhism [Online]. October 12, 2007. (viewed). .” http://religionfacts.com /sikhism/fastfacts.htm l History of the Sikhs. www.sikh-history.org www.sikh-history.org “Angad Dev.” [Online] Septem 28 2007. (viewed). ber http://www.sikh-history.com /sikhhist/gurus/nanak2.htm l “Har Rai.” [Online] Septem 28 2007. (viewed). ber Har http://www.sikh-history.com /sikhhist/gurus/nanak7.htm l http://www.sikh-history.com Works Cited (cont.) Works Cited (cont.) History of the Sikhs. www.sikh-history.org History www.sikh-history.org “Nanak Dev.” [Online] Septem 28 2007. (viewed). ber Nanak http://www.sikh-history.com /sikhhist/gurus/nanak1.htm l http://www.sikh-history.com Sikhs and Arts of the Punjab in the Asian collections at the V&A. [Online] Sikhs Septem 2007. (viewed). ber Septem http://www.vam .ac.uk/vastatic/m icrosites/1162_sikhs/sikhism/sikhism .htm http://www.vam Sikhism www.sikhs.org . www.sikhs.org “Am Das.” [Online] Septem 28 2007. (viewed). ar ber http://www.sikhs.org/guru3.htm “A rjan Dev.” [Online] Septem 28 2007. (viewed). ber Arjan http://www.sikhs.org/guru5.htm http://www.sikhs.org/guru5.htm URI – United Religions Initiative. www.uri.org www.uri.org “Sikhism Portrait.” [Online] October 6, 2007. (viewed). http://www.uri.org/Sikhism _Portrait.htm l Works Cited (cont.) Works Cited (cont.) Wikipedia. http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia. http://www.wikipedia.org “Am rita.” [Online] Septem 20. 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Am rita “Diwali.” [Online] September 2007. (viewed). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diwali “God in Sikhism.” [Online] October 12, 2007. (viewed). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God_In_Sikhism “Har Gobind.” [Online] Septem 28 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Har_Gobind “Haum [Online] October 30, 2007. (viewed). ai.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haum ai “Holidays: Baisakhi.” [Online] Septem 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baisakhi “Holidays: Guru Nanak Dev’s Birthday.” [Online] Septem 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Nanak%27s_Birthday “Five Evils.” [Online] Septem 10, 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Evils Works Cited (cont.) Works Cited (cont.) Wikipedia.org (cont.) “Five K’s.” [Online] Septem 7, 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Ks “Five Virtues.” [Online] Septem 10, 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Virtues “Khalsa.” [Online] Septem 20, 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalsa “Maya.” [Online] October 30, 2007. (viewed). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_(illusion)# Maya_in_Sikhism “Sikhism.” [Online] Septem 7, 2007. (viewed) . ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikhism “Sikhism Scripture.” [Online] Septem 2007. (viewed). ber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikhism Scripture # “Sikh Ethics.” The Free Dictionary by Farlex. [Online] October 30, 2007. (viewed). http://encyclopedia.farlex.com /Sikh+ ethics Works Cited (cont.) Works Cited (cont.) “Sikhism.” [Online] November 16, 2007. (viewed). http://www.world-faiths.com/Sikhism/sikhism.htm http://www.world-faiths.com/Sikhism/sikhism.htm “The Differences between Sikhism and Christianity.” [Online] pdf. Nov. 16,2007 The (viewed). http://www.forananswer.org/Top_WR/Gidoomal_Differences.pdf http://www.forananswer.org/Top_WR/Gidoom ...
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