Chapter-5 & 12 - Kinetic Molecular View of the...

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Kinetic Molecular View of the Three States Attractive Forces vs. Kinetic Energy Properties Gas Attractive forces are weak relative to kinetic energy. Particles are far apart. A gas has no fixed shape or volume. Liquid Attractive forces are stronger because particles have less kinetic energy. A liquid can flow and change shape, but has a fixed volume. Solid Attractions dominate motion. Particles are fixed in place relative to each other. A solid has a fixed shape and volume.
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Diffusion and effusion Diffusion: movement of one gas through another gas. (gases mix spontaneously) (perfume) Effusion: movement of gas particles through a pinhole. The velocity is dependent on the molar mass Gases with different molar mass are moving at different speeds. Relative rate of effusion is described by Graham’s Law.
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Effusion. Lighter (black) particles effuse faster than heavier (red) particles
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Graham’s Law of Effusion Graham’s law of effusion states that the rate of effusion is INVERSELY proportional to the square root of the molar mass. The heavier particles are moving slower. Rate A Rate B = molar mass B molar mass A
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Example problem : How much faster will a sample of Ne effuse than a sample of Cl2?
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Example problem : Ne effuses 1.26 times as fast as an unknow gas. What is the molar mass of the unknown gas?
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Real gases Ideal gas: gas that obeys the ideal gas law and kinetic molecular theory. All assumptions hold
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