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Training effect for strength and endurance-2

Training effect for strength and endurance-2 - Training for...

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Training for Endurance and Strength A Theoretical and Practical Approach
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The “fitness” or “ training effect” Less than 10% of Americans exercise enough to get fitness benefits That is, less than 1 in 10 is regularly active in exercise intense enough to produce a “training effect” What are the benefits of becoming trained or fit?
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Biomarkers responsive to exercise 1. Muscles mass---increases 2. Muscle strength---increases 3. Basal metabolic rate (BMR)---increases 4. Percent body fat---decreases 5. Aerobic capacity (VO 2 Max)---increases 6. Cholesterol/HDL/LDL ratio---more favorable
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7. Resting blood pressure---decreases 8. Blood sugar tolerance---better able to process sugar to stay within normal range 9. Bone density---increases from weight- bearing exercises 10. Internal temperature regulation--- becomes more efficient
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Aerobic vs strength training Generally, both aerobic and strength training will produce these effects if the proper conditions are met: For those under 50, aerobic and strength training are about equal For those over 50, strength training produces relatively greater benefits
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Aerobic capacity (VO 2 Max) reflects all of the following: 1. Lungs’ ability to move air: ventilation 2. Oxygen movement from longs to blood cells 3. Heart’s ability to pump oxygenated blood to muscles 4. How well blood is reaching muscles 5. How well muscles utilize oxygen to cause movement
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Muscles use sugar and oxygen to produce motion plus heat This process in muscle cells Blood carries both oxygen and sugar to the cell Cells store sugar (glycogen), but this amount is insufficient to sustain long-term activity With a training effect, cardiovascular (hearth and blood vessels) and respiratory(lungs) system changes occur
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1. Heart size increases 2. Blood volume increases 3. Heart rate attainable during exercise increases; resting heart rate decreases 4. Stroke volume of heart increases 5. Cardiac output increases 6. Oxygen extraction from the blood at the muscle is greater 7. Blood flow is easier and its distribution more widespread
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8. Blood pressure during exercise increases; resting blood pressure decreases 9. Respiratory functioning is more efficient; more air inhaled per breathe
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Other changes due to training effect greater lean body mass performance increases for those muscles that have been trained
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THE TRAINING EFFECT Principles of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) apply 1. Alarm phase 2. Resistance phase 3. Exhaustion phase over time caused by a stressor that overloads beyond current level of fitness
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Specificity of Training However, except for about 10% for the cardiovascular system THERE IS NO OVERALL TRAINING EFFECT Training effects are specific to the particular 1. Energy system that is overloaded 2. The particular muscle groups utilized 3. The sequences of muscle activity used
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Three energy systems 1. IMMEDIATE (ATP-CR) ENERGY
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