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Unformatted text preview: Sociology 101 Wednesday April 21 and Monday April 27, 2010 Professor Deborah Carr Topic: Population and Demography I. What is Demography? (cont’d) 1. Population pyramids shows the age and gender composition of a nation. It helps us to understand the future size and composition of a population. The size and shape of a population pyramids reflects the pace at which people enter a population (birth rates) and the pace at which they exit the population (death rates). a. The pyramid also reveals a nation’s dependency ratio, or the ratio of economically “dependent” to economically “independent” persons. In most nations it is: persons <age 15 + persons age 65+ persons age 15-64 B. Population processes. The size, distribution and composition of the population are affected by three processes: 1. Fertility a. The level of reproduction in society. It refers to the number of children born to a woman. Demographers distinguish between population increases that happen due to natural increase (i.e., babies born) versus increases that happen due to migration (i.e., people moving into an area). b. It is very important for the future of our nation to understand WHO is having babies, and how many they have. Social class and race/ethnic differences in fertility rates suggest that the non-white and poor populations will grow much more rapidly than the well-educated and native-born white populations. i. The one-child policy in China (coupled with the use of amniocenteses) is leading to a context where people are putting their girls up for adoption, and keeping boys. Many fear that out migration, rape, or importing brides to China are among the possible consequences. c. Formal measurement. Crude birth rate is the total number of live births per 1,000 persons in a population. This is “crude” because it is based on the entire population, and it fails to identify the gender and age structure of a population. So, demographers are more likely to use the total fertility rate, or the average number of babies born to a woman in her lifetime. In the U.S., today, the TFR ranges from 5.3 in Africa to 1.4 in Europe, to about 2 in the U.S. 2. Mortality a. The level of death in a country. It is important to consider not only how many people die in a given year, but how old they are when they die and WHO is more likely to die (men versus women, black versus white). The overall age structure of a population is contingent upon when people die (e.g., high infant mortality versus high late-life mortality). b. Formal measurement. Crude death rate is the annual number of deaths per 1,000 members of a population. However, this can be misleading because younger populations appear to have lower CDRs. Age-specific death rates are a much more useful way to compare and contrast countries. 3. Migration a. Migration generally refers to the movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of establishing a new residence. People can migrate either within one nation, or between two nations. International migration is the migrate either within one nation, or between two nations....
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