Isl+Civ+Lecture+7 - • Sunni sources report his military...

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Lecture 7 Origins of Shi`ism
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MU`AWIYYA (r. 661 – 680) 1 st Umayyad caliph had 21 yrs experience as governor of Syria moved capital to Damascus criticized for wanting son Yazid to succeed him used mawali for farming in Medina was smart politician used Abu Sufyan’s policies of trading agreements as inspiration for his statecraft used money to secure alliances cabinet filled by Qurayshis of lesser clans (not Umayyads) organized caliphate more as a confederation than an empire (except royal lands of Sasanians in/around Kufa) known for hilm had grudging respect of some of the opposition at news of his death, Husayn marched to Kufa
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Yazid b. Mu`awiyya (r. 680-683) sources date to approx 800 and after; are highly partisan Shi`i sources describe him as corrupt, tyrannical, and impious
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Unformatted text preview: • Sunni sources report his military experience and skill, and effective rule • faced opposition on many fronts: – Shi`a of `Ali in Kufa invigorated by events of Karbala – Shi`a attracted mawali to their cause (universalism; egalitarianism) – 681 revolt in Mecca & Medina under Ibn al-Zubayr w/ mawali support – Khariji revolts • POLITICAL SHI`ISM • The belief that the members of the house of Hashim are the people most worthy of holding political authority in the Islamic community, but no belief in any particular religious station for this family • RELIGIOUS SHI`ISM • The belief that particular members of the house of Hashim are in receipt of divine inspiration and are thus the channel of God’s guidance to men whether or not they hold political authority...
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This note was uploaded on 11/20/2011 for the course MIDDLE EAS 508:201 taught by Professor Russell during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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Isl+Civ+Lecture+7 - • Sunni sources report his military...

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