Isl+Civ+Lecture+6 - Ansar left out established garrison...

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POLICY Questions 1) WHO do you appoint? 2) WHO do you tax? How much? 3) WHO do you reward? How much? 4) How do you maintain control of conquered territories? 5) Where do you focus your resources?
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Lecture 6 The “Rightly-Guided Caliphs”
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The “Rightly-Guided Caliphs” ABU BAKR (r. 632 – 634) ‘UMAR (r. 634 – 644) ‘UTHMAN (r. 644 – 656) ‘ALI (r. 656 – 661)
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Abu Bakr (r. 632 – 634) politically wise choice re-established authority of Muslim umma in “ridda” wars maintained Muhammad’s policy on Syria accepted newly-converted Meccans into administration Khalid ibn al-Walid (had fought against Muslims at Uhud)
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Umar (634 – 644) stern, uncompromising, austere brilliant political, military, and economic leader led conquests of Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Egypt made appointments according to sabiqa notable exception: Mu’awiyya b. Abu Sufyan (appt. governor of Syria 640)
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Unformatted text preview: Ansar left out established garrison towns/no integration established diwan system Amirs independent/taxes used locally Uthman (644 656) lacked military experience charged with nepotism clan Umayya overturned sabiqa centralization (Quran; taxes) opposition around two issues: declining status of the early converts taxes sent to Medina Three seats of discontent (map): Medina Kufa Egypt Ali (656 661) blamed for not protecting Uthman withdrew many of Uthmans appointments Uthman symbolic rallying point moved capital from Medina to Kufa 656 Battle of the Camel Muawiyya refused to give baya until Uthmans murder avenged immigration policy 657 Battle of Siffin...
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Isl+Civ+Lecture+6 - Ansar left out established garrison...

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