Fiscal PolicyFiscal policy is carried out by the legislative and/or the executive branches of government. The two main instruments of fiscal policy are government expenditures and taxes. The government collects taxes in order to finance expenditures on a number of public goods and services—for example, highways and national defense. Budget deficits and surpluses. When government expenditures exceed government tax revenues in a given year, the government is running a budget deficit for that year. The budget deficit, which is the difference between government expenditures and tax revenues, is financed by government borrowing; the government issues long-term, interest-bearing bonds and uses the proceeds to finance the deficit. The total stock of government bonds and interest payments outstanding, from
This is the end of the preview.
access the rest of the document.