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Unformatted text preview: Plato Philosophers paradox (i) one cannot see philosophical arguments as compelling ones unless one is already a philosopher (ii)one cannot become a philosopher unless one sees philosophical arguments as compelling ones (iii)it follows that one can never become a philosopher hence , the need for seduction and selection Doctrina ignorantia: - a basic principle of Socratic method - pretends to know nothing - acknowledging your own ignorance/ when you think you do know, you stop asking Socratic irony: - a basic principle of Socratic method - means distance or gap - Socrates will say things he doesnt believe to advance the discussion Elenchus: - basic mechanism of deliberation 1. general deFnition requested (not instances) - ex: dont show me a just man, tell me what justice is 2. deFnition offered 3. deFnition fails &gt; counter example or similar objection 4. improve deFnition offered 5. conceptual relations queried: is conditional relation sufFcient (good), necessary(better/ without which) or both (best) 6. repeat as necessary 7. philosophical deFnition found: general category, independant standard Example : Platos dialogue Euthyphro. Asked what a pious action is, Euthyphro replies, a pious act is what the gods love Cephalus:- Cephalus is Polemarchuss father- he is happy to be free of the mad masters of desire (he no longer wishes to do anything bad - desire is negative) - afterlife bargaining (cf. Pascals Wager) he wants to put in time and effort in case there is something on the other side because the payoff will be great if there is, and if not, the loss is minimal - the great goal is honesty and freedom from debt J 1 , J 2 , &amp;c. J1 (331c): Pre-refective DeFnition- to tell the truth and pay back what is owed counterexample: crazy man with sword example J2 (331e): ormal DeFnition- to give each what is owed to him excessive abstraction: no critical purchase Tekn - means, craft - in craft analogy - virtue is a practice/craft; every practice/craft is a form of knowledge or know-how J3 (332d): Aristocratic DeFnition - to treat friends well and enemies badly problems of ends (end = telos) - you must know towards what end you live in knowledge of the good - how do you know what a good end is opposed to a bad one? J3 prime (335a): K-aristocratic deFnition- knowledgeable aristocratic deFnition (knows the difference between good friends and bad enemies) harm - in a truly just life, there should never be harm - not virtuous J4 (338a): Political realist deFnition- a realist that believes that power is everything, might makes right justice is nothing except the advantage of the stronger ( political realism ) J5 (353e): Psychological deFnition- goes to the logic of the psyche excellence, which is virtue, means being oriented to the proper end/ telos, so when we are just, the living part of our souls are properly directed to the right purpose excellence (virtual, arete) &gt; end (purpose, telos) Art - excellence, fulFllment of ones purpose/ potential...
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