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3. Capitalism, History and Revolution - Marx

3. Capitalism, History and Revolution - Marx - POL Tuesday...

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POL Tuesday, September 29, 2009 Marx, pp 3-6 - Men enter into unwilling relationships in their life - relations of production that match with a stage of development of their material productive forces (body & brain, tools & techniques, materials, resources and equipment) - as long as there are more productive forces to develop, a society will never perish - a task only arises when the materials are available for a solution Marx, pp 302-308 A commodity satisfies human wants. The utility of a thing makes it a use-value (when dealing with this always use definite quantities - ex: a dozen watches). Exchange-value is accidental and completely relative. 1 valid e-values of a commodity express something equal (1 gold - 2 silver & 2 bronze. TF silver = bronze) 2 e-value is a mode of expression of something contained in it, yet different from it. Things can be reduced to thirds... There is no difference in use-value with something that is equal in exchange-value. Without use-value, these commodities are merely products of labour. If we abstract them from their use-value, they go to just human expense without expenditure and remain as just -Values (human labour is embodied in it). How do you measure this value? By average amount of labour-time spent working on it. This makes any two commodities equal in labour time, also equal in value. Also: the less the productiveness of labour (fruit in season opposed to not), the greater labour-time, therefore the greater the value. Also, things can have use-value but have no value, for example, soil. And, if
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