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POLITICAL SCIENCE STUDY NOTES Tradition and Modernity: Economy and society in the pre-modern era: - scarcity : no surplus - non-market societies : people bartered, a commonly universalized currency did not exist - family life - live in extended families, you were born into this, kinship relations were very important, relations and loyalties highly personal - affective orientation - cry for three days, loyalties based on love - collective orientation - individual rights did not exist, they are modern. oriented towards extended family - particularism : people were treated differently based on their status, you would never treat people on the outside of your family the same as your family, shunning - ascriptive roles - you were born into a set status, not merit based - role of the church - until the 16th century there was one universal church - the catholic church Political Authority and the State: what is a state? an organization that has a monopoly on the use of force within a given territory A state didn’t exist in pre modern era. .. - no distinction between public/ private authority - authority relations based on personal dependance and love and affection - no clear lines of territorial authority - no “borders” of countries (modern creation), loyalties to anyone changed based on who had what you wanted The Rise of the West: Modernization Origins of modern world economy: - twin “revolutions” 16th -19th centuries, agricultural and industrial - modernization occurred in NW triangle (NW corner of Europe) Agricultural revolution - not revolution, but: changes in agricultural technologies - changes in technology moved across the continent about 3-5 miles per year l - three economic regions of Europe - core, semi-periphery, periphery Industrial Revolution - Originates in late 18th century England - more appropriately designated as a revolution 1
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- produced huge changes in domestic consumption. Ex: cheap cotton produced changes of fashion Consequences: - luxuries decencies necessities - distribution was highly uneven but now creation of middle class that had risen from manual labor to professional or entrepreneurial status Social Results: 1) capacity to produce surplus and subsequent expansion of markets and risk taking entrepreneurship 2) increasing complexity of division of labor, and pressure for more rationalized and elaborate systems of administrative regulation 3) new forms of social consciousness - a sense of personal efFcacy Political Results: - creation of new groups and con±icts: between the aristocracy and the new entrepreneurs (bourgeoisie), and among new social elements (bourgeoisie, mass of common people, and bureaucracy) - In Britain con±icts were resolved in two stages: 1) bourgeoisie emerges victorious over royal bureaucracies and traditional aristocracies 2) political rights extended gradually to the working class Critique of Hegel - history is the history of ideas & has meaning and movement - history will end when there are no new ideas, and the perfect idea comes (the truth)
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course POL 103Y1 taught by Professor Professorkopstein during the Fall '09 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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