Islam 2 - RLG Monday, November 16, 2009 Islam Beliefs •...

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Unformatted text preview: RLG Monday, November 16, 2009 Islam Beliefs • central belief in unity (tawhid), omnipotence, omnipresence of God - but generally emphasis on orthopraxy - correct practise • Five Pillars of Islam: 1. shahadah “there is no God, but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God” ➔ all you need to do to convert to being a Muslim 2. salat ➔ daily prayer - five times a day towards Mecca (sunrise, noon, afternoon, evening, nightfall) ➔ call of muʼadhdhin 3. zakat ➔ almsgiving ➔ annual sharing of 2.5% of wealth with less fortunate in community ➔ not charity because it is obligation, and charity is voluntary 4. fasting during Ramadan ➔ abstaining from foods, drink and sex between dawn and dusk ➔ following by festival of Eid al-Fitr 5. hajj ➔ pilgrimage to Mecca ➔ must be undertaken at least once in life by healthy Muslims ➔ they all wear white so everyone is the same - purity ➔ myth: Hagart searching for the well • iman - personal faith/ devotion - expressed through practice/ action rapid growth under Muhammad and early leaders (caliphs) • - Africa, Europe, Central & South Asia between 9th and 12th centuries in particular, Islamic civilization flourished • • Muslim Spain and Portugal (Iberia) - al- Andalus - flourishing of culture, science, philosophy - religious tolerance • Christians and Jews generally tolerated - people of the book • after death of Muhammad, problem of succession - Companions of the Prophet selected Abu Bakr as the first Caliph (from Kalifah, “steward” or “deputy”) • four “Rightly Guided Caliphs” (from 632-661CE) - Abu Bakr - Umar - Uthman - Ali (son-in-law, cousin of Muhammad) • Uthman accused of being too favourable to his Umayyad Clan - killed by unhappy subjects Muawiya (Umayyad governor of Syria), demanded revenge • - led to split between followers of Muawiya and followers of Ali followers of Muawiya and Umayyads - came to be known as Sunni • • followers of Ali and his descendants - came to be known as Shiʼa • Ali is killed by breakaway group - Kharijites - afterwards, Muawiya took control, began Umayyad Dynasty uprising of Aliʼs son Husayn against Muawiyaʼs son Yazid • - intercepted and killed with his followers in 680 at Karbala massacre commemorated by Shiʼa during Ashura • Sunni Shiʼa - succession of caliphs elected from community - leaders must be directly descended from Muhammadʼs family (Imams) - majority (approx 85%) - minority (approx 15%) • split amongst Shiʼa - Ismaʼili (ʻSevenerʼ) and Imami (ʻTwelverʼ) - Imami Shiʼism - 12th century Imam went into hiding (ʻoccultationʼ), to return as the Mahdi (“rightly guided one”) - leader of the main body of Ismaʼili Shiʼism today known as the Aga Khan • fall of Umayyad Dynasty in 750 - replaced by Abbasid Dynasty (capital moved to Baghdad) • eventually several claims to the caliphate - Mongol invasion in 13th century ...
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