Islam 2 - RLG Monday Islam Beliefs • central belief in...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: RLG Monday, November 16, 2009 Islam Beliefs • central belief in unity (tawhid), omnipotence, omnipresence of God - but generally emphasis on orthopraxy - correct practise • Five Pillars of Islam: 1. shahadah “there is no God, but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God” ➔ all you need to do to convert to being a Muslim 2. salat ➔ daily prayer - five times a day towards Mecca (sunrise, noon, afternoon, evening, nightfall) ➔ call of muʼadhdhin 3. zakat ➔ almsgiving ➔ annual sharing of 2.5% of wealth with less fortunate in community ➔ not charity because it is obligation, and charity is voluntary 4. fasting during Ramadan ➔ abstaining from foods, drink and sex between dawn and dusk ➔ following by festival of Eid al-Fitr 5. hajj ➔ pilgrimage to Mecca ➔ must be undertaken at least once in life by healthy Muslims ➔ they all wear white so everyone is the same - purity ➔ myth: Hagart searching for the well • iman - personal faith/ devotion - expressed through practice/ action rapid growth under Muhammad and early leaders (caliphs) • - Africa, Europe, Central & South Asia between 9th and 12th centuries in particular, Islamic civilization flourished • • Muslim Spain and Portugal (Iberia) - al- Andalus - flourishing of culture, science, philosophy - religious tolerance • Christians and Jews generally tolerated - people of the book • after death of Muhammad, problem of succession - Companions of the Prophet selected Abu Bakr as the first Caliph (from Kalifah, “steward” or “deputy”) • four “Rightly Guided Caliphs” (from 632-661CE) - Abu Bakr - Umar - Uthman - Ali (son-in-law, cousin of Muhammad) • Uthman accused of being too favourable to his Umayyad Clan - killed by unhappy subjects Muawiya (Umayyad governor of Syria), demanded revenge • - led to split between followers of Muawiya and followers of Ali followers of Muawiya and Umayyads - came to be known as Sunni • • followers of Ali and his descendants - came to be known as Shiʼa • Ali is killed by breakaway group - Kharijites - afterwards, Muawiya took control, began Umayyad Dynasty uprising of Aliʼs son Husayn against Muawiyaʼs son Yazid • - intercepted and killed with his followers in 680 at Karbala massacre commemorated by Shiʼa during Ashura • Sunni Shiʼa - succession of caliphs elected from community - leaders must be directly descended from Muhammadʼs family (Imams) - majority (approx 85%) - minority (approx 15%) • split amongst Shiʼa - Ismaʼili (ʻSevenerʼ) and Imami (ʻTwelverʼ) - Imami Shiʼism - 12th century Imam went into hiding (ʻoccultationʼ), to return as the Mahdi (“rightly guided one”) - leader of the main body of Ismaʼili Shiʼism today known as the Aga Khan • fall of Umayyad Dynasty in 750 - replaced by Abbasid Dynasty (capital moved to Baghdad) • eventually several claims to the caliphate - Mongol invasion in 13th century ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Ask a homework question - tutors are online