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Quiz #2 study notes

Quiz #2 study notes - R eligion Quiz ll Notes Western...

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Religion Quiz ll Notes Western modernity – generally thought to begin c. 15 th -16 th centuries Protestant Reformation : started by Martin Luther (1483-1546) reacting against sale of indulgences which were the releases from time in purgatory (the supposed holding area for the soul in its passage from death to the next existence) 1517 : 95 theses that criticized church practice was nailed to church door 1521 : Luther was put on trial and had to defend charges of political subversion at an imperial council called the Diet of Worms . He refused to retract his views and was excommunicated. Luther : emphasis on justiFcation (free of the penalty of sin) not by works, but by faith alone (Paul) and priesthood of all believers (Luther removed priesthood from pedestal, replaced institutional tradition with authority of the bible and inner guidance of holy spirit, equality of spiritual access) importance of printing press (invented 1439) in spread of Reformation - Latin bible came out in 1456, Luther’s challenges to the church came out in pamphlets - 1 million produced between 1521 and 1524, along with a readable translation of the bible in 1522 and 1534 John Calvin (1509-1564): argued for simple, humble hard work as key to piety; doctrine of the Elect many different Protestant groups spawned – all rejecting the Pope’s authority: - Lutherans , Calvinists , Anglicans , Anabaptists - later: Methodists , Presbyterians , Quakers , Baptists , Pentecostals , etc. Anglicanism: formed by Henry VIII of England - monarch replaced the pope as head of church - established state church without links to Rome, traditional mass conducted in vernacular, hierarchy with bishops (that can marry) (ALL just like Lutheranism except they are presbyters, not bishops) Puritans : not denomination but a movement in English/colonial American protestant churches - early Calvinists who left England to come to New World (America) - began as effort to “purify” Church of England from remnants of Catholisicm - believed in predestination Evangelical Christianity: emotional, charismatic, missionizing form characteristic of much Protestantism in U.S. after 19 th c. - refer to conversion as ‘spiritual rebirth’
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- spreads their message as the only message fundamentalism : from The Fundamentals (published between 1910-1915), movement rejecting modernism, secularism, liberalism based on literal reading of the Bible - advocates of inerrancy - perceive struggle between good and evil. .. evil being satan manifested in liberal groups that are pro-choice, for example Catholic Counter-Reformation : Reformation rejected, but abuses in Church curtailed and clergy educated ( Council of Trent , began 1545 - acted to enforce discipline and end abuses and excesses that had weakened church as an institution - ex: reafFrmed celibacy for priests, instituted seminaries for training) First Vatican Council (began 1869) – modernization, liberalism considered heretical
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Quiz #2 study notes - R eligion Quiz ll Notes Western...

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