Study Notes - Midterm - Bioethics: Midterm INTRODUCTION...

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Bioethics: Midterm INTRODUCTION What is bioethics? The exploration of the moral questions that arise given our biological nature Moral Questions: - How should we behave? - NOT a question about self-interest - NOT a question about how we do behave - Instead, an appeal to values right/wrong virtuous/vicious obliged/ forbidden - open up the case so that you do not conform to your ideals Different Kinds of Values: - religious values blessed, divine, sacred, pious - non-religious values human well-being, human integrity, rationality Three types of bioethical questions 1. What should the state allow and provide? What does a just state owe the citizens? What type of political arrangement/ rules/ policies should we have? 2. How should health care professionals behave? 3. What should each of us make of the issue at hand? How do I live well, when I am a human being like this? Type (1) Questions about Society - how should we live together when we disagree about the highest values? - Mutual tolerance instead of huge wars Type (2) Questions about Professional Ethics - what rules should HCPs follow in a pluralistic society? - let patients live by their own reasonable values Type 3 Questions of Individual Belief - it is not relativism as we want to be right in our beliefs - We ask, would this be a good way to spend our life? but this gives us a possibility that we may be wasting our lives - PROBLEM: we have reasonable disagreements about what the moral values are and how they can be balanced with one another
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in the 16th century they had huge wars about this Our Biological Nature: - we are “of woman born” - reproduce sexually - many years of infancy - susceptible to disease and disability - genetic variability - mortal and with an indeFnite future “The bioethics of everyday life” - exploration of the moral questions that each of us face in life of our biological natures - type (3) questions Reproduction 1. Conception - sexually, artiFcially - mans sperm unites with a woman’s egg 2. Zygote: - 40% fail to implant in the women’s womb - 20% more fail to implant and more quickly miscarry (the woman may not know she is pregnant) 3. Embryo - it is known as no longer a zygote, but an embryo after day 14 - the beginnings of differentiation of cells and forming of a spinal cord/ circulatory system - about 2mm long 4. ±etus - 8 weeks: 25mm long, human form - 22 weeks: sentience (brain activity and awareness; ex: sensitivity to pleasure and pain) - beginning of viability / can possibly live on their own - 30 weeks: brain activity associated with sleeping/ waking 5. Third Trimester - Primarily increase in size and strength rather than new internal development Abortions: First Trimester - suction evacuation (suck the fetus from the uterus) - D&C (dilate and scrape the sides of the womb) - Abortion Pill/ Plan B Second Trimester - Saline injection in amniotic ²uid followed by induced delivery Third Trimester
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- IDX: intact dilation extraction - fetus’s head is evacuated (take material out of the brain of the fetus) so as to allow induced
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course PHL 281H1 taught by Professor Professorainslie during the Fall '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Study Notes - Midterm - Bioethics: Midterm INTRODUCTION...

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