Final Study Notes - SHOEMAKER From Personal Identity to...

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SHOEMAKER From Personal Identity to Ethics (Applied) Embryos Argument: ASCR (1) Humans come into existence at the “ moment ” of conception ___ (2) Embryos are humans (3) Stem - cell research requires destroying (2-5 day old) embryos (4) Killing humans is wrong , all else being equal ___ (5) Conducting stem - cell research is wrong , all else being equal Example: Adam as an embryo , splits later (twinning) into two embryos, Barney and Claire Either : (i) Adam survives as both (ii)Adam survives as one of Barney and Claire but not as both (iii)Adam doesn’t survive Counter-Argument One Against ASCR (1) Humans come into existence at the “ moment ” of conception [assumption-this is premise (1) in ASCR) ___ (2) Adam is a human [1] (3) Adam doesn’t survive twinning (4) When a human dies , it is a tragedy that should be mourned ___ (5) Adam’s death is a tragedy that should be mourned [2-4] (6) Adam’s death is not a tragedy that should be mourned ! ___ (7) Human beings don’t come into existence at the moment of conception [1-6] Counter Argument Two Against ASCR (1) Humans come into existence at the “ moment ” of conception [assumption-this is premise (1) in ASCR) ___ (2) Adam is a human [1] (3) Adam doesn’t survive twinning (4) When a human dies , it leaves earthly remains ___ (5) Upon twinning , Adam leaves earthly remains (6) Upon twinning , Adam doesn’t leave earthly remains ( Claire and Barney are not earthly remains !) 1
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(7) Humans don’t come into existence at the moment of conception [1-6] Argument ASCR Revisited We are blocking premise (1) as a result of the two counter arguments Imagine you are a 4-Dimensionalist. .. Lewis’s Reply: - the counter arguments fail if you adopt Lewis’s Four Dimensionalist View - you could say that Adam has always been Claire and Barney - the reply to ASCR relies on a certain view of personal identity, on which survival requires identity and on which there’s no co-habitation. Abortion Argument: AA (1) Killing any entity with a future like ours is wrong , All else equal (2) Fetuses have a future like ours ___ (3) Killing a fetus is wrong , all else equal . Reply (1) If an entity X has a future like ours , then it will be identical with some future entity Y , which is like us (2) If X will be identical with some such Y , then X is mentally connected - continuous in the right way with that Y . ___ (3) If an entity X has a future like ours , then X is mentally connected - continuous in the right way with that Y (4) No fetus is MCC in the right way with such a Y - after all, fetuses don’t have the right sorts of mental states ___ (5) No fetus has a future like ours Future Directives Time One : Pre - Dementia “I am presently sound of mind, but I know dementia is coming, and when it comes, I want you to let me die” Time Two: Dementia has set in “As per your directive we will let you die”, “No! I want to live” Which person should we listen to? - If they’re the
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Final Study Notes - SHOEMAKER From Personal Identity to...

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