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9. Wednesday, October 12, 2011

9. Wednesday, October 12, 2011 - Benthams Utilitarian...

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Benthams ʼ Utilitarian Arithmetic: - Any individual act ʼ s value (pleasure or pain) intensity duration certainty propinquity - The “act by which it is produced” fesundity purity (whether it is followed by sensations of the opposite kind) - Number of people extent Examples: Going to a Bob Marley Concert: 50+10+50+50+30++60x10,000=2,500,000+ Going to claim the Nobel Prize: 200+20+100+100+20+100x3=1,620 Going to dentist for a root canal: 75+10+100+50+5+25x1=265 Giving a paper cut to everyone in lecture: 10+1+30+60+0+0x80=8,080 - Is this what Bentham means? - Is this a good way to characterize the goodness/ badness of experience or the rightness/ wrongness of an act? - this shows that it matters if other people are happy - this is primitive because it reduces all goods to pleasure and all evils to pain Mill: Utilitarianism Refned - Utilitarianism: “greatest happiness principle” - utility: not how useful something is, but the idea that everyone should have their happiness maximize and this relates to hedonism - Hedonism: pleasure is good and pain is bad - Mill takes this a step further and equates desire theory with hedonism - Mill is intersted in the overlap between pleasure and desire - he says that what we desire is pleasure and what we do not desire is pain - he mixes up desire-fulFllment theory and hedonism - from psychological to ethical - Bentham says that humans are wired to Fnd pleasure and avoid pain, he does not know how to make this universal (maximizing everyones pleasure) - he says that the desire and pleasure are the same
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- if the human nature does not desire anything but happiness or the means to happiness, therefore it is the only thing desirable
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9. Wednesday, October 12, 2011 - Benthams Utilitarian...

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