4. Monday, October 3, 2011 - The Biology of Sex: Biology as...

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The Biology of Sex: Biology as Economics: - economics fts biology, better than it fts economics -the economic point oF view consists in evaluation an action in terms oF the value oF its consequences -when you calculate the costs and benefts oF something you are thinking oF doing, you want to get the best result -you do not only bring in the value and disvalue oF success and Failure, and the probabilities oF each; then, you weigh the value and disvalue with probability -A typical version: Bayesian Decision Theory the “expected utility” (U) oF an option is defned as the sum oF the values oF each possible outcome (d), weighted by its probability (p) ex: is it worth you spending $1.00, and you look at the probability oF winning, the ticket is only worth $0.10 what goes on here is that the value oF each outcome is not just the monetary, but is also the value oF Fun -how do economics apply to biology? Quick Detour: Biology and Evolution : Key tenets oF modern evolutionary biology. .. -Common descent: All living things have a common ancestor bacteria, grass, insects, animals and you, have a common ancestor how do we know this? at frst it was a speculation it is not logically necessary that this is true the reason we think that it is correct is that RNA or DNA is pervasive throughout the world, and inside every cell there is a symbiotic organism -Diversifcation is largely chance: most species that have ever existed are extinct the motor oF diversifcation is essentially chance this is not to say that the organisms that we see are the result oF chance; this is much too simple the organisms aFter some chance change occurs, their living depends on whether they are strong enough to survive -Natural selection shapes adaptation among a bunch oF di f erent organisms, some will have better success in having more o f spring this can change based on things like climate change -The mechanism oF heredity is (mostly) genetic there is controversy about whether your genes determine your destiny instead, they make some Forms oF behaviour or responses, more or less probable in relations to environment
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there is a di f erence between the genes you carry and those which are expressed in your own body -Phenotypes are selected, but what are inherited are features of genotypes phenotypes are what is expressed: the way in which your body actually comes out it may be that although you have black hair, you have the gene for ginger hair these are recessive genes Evolution by Natural Selection : -Given these assumptions, its just logic: A source of variation or diversity Heritability: you need those freaks in order to get change; there is a copying mechanism which almost perfect, but not quite; there are about 200 errors in the copying of your parents genes to yours; many attempts at conception fail because of a spontaneous miscarriage - natural abortions outnumber the abortions done by people because of these errors
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4. Monday, October 3, 2011 - The Biology of Sex: Biology as...

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