5. Monday, October 17, 2011

5. Monday, October 17, 2011 - The moral of our survey of...

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-ask not: why this individual deviates from type, as why individuals cluster into type -[Cf Newton: “Don’t ask why the arrow keeps moving, ask why it stops”] this simple reversal of this question is Newton’s Frst law of motion -deep observation in history of science: moments where you decide that the question you are asking is the wrong question I.Reasons to be skeptical of gender di f erences - “stereotypes may generally re±ect reality, partly because they help to shape reality” - ex: the study between male brains and female brains were meant to prove why male brains were superior to female brains they thought they were bigger, and then that there was a more distinct line between left and right they knew something was there so they were looking something to Fnd - Publication bias: “no di f erence, no publication” no one will publish it if you “haven’t found a thing” if you conduct 20 studies and they all Fnd nothing at all, but if you conduct the 20th and Fnd something, then the journals will look at this 1/20 because you found something - Lots of evidence about cultural relativity of gender di f erences in emotional expression - Many such di f erences may be e f ects of social status . .... SEE SLIDES Not all living things have two sexes: - Sex (biological) vs. gender (psycho-social): the distinction is controversial but handy - common reasons for thinking there must be just two sexes linked to two genders. .. two sorts of gametes: large (female: contains what you need in order for a cell to live) and small (male: contains absolutely nothing but the DNA) two sex related chromosomes: XX (female: homo-chromatic), XY (male: hetero-chromatic) the “obviousness” of the gender dichotomy in humans and close relatives “explained” by sex - a problem with this is that not everything follows from these di f erences - second problem is that sexual reproduction is the exemption in the natural world sex seems to be a very ine F cient way of going about reproducing
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5. Monday, October 17, 2011 - The moral of our survey of...

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