The New Deal coalition and Republican resurgence The Great Depression brought about a major shift in political party allegiance. African-American voters, who had traditionally supported the Republicans since Reconstruction, now joined the unemployed, the immigrants and their descendants, the liberal intellectuals, and the South in backing Franklin Roosevelt. The Democratic party's New Deal coalition redefined the role of the federal government as an active agent in promoting the general welfare. The Democrats dominated national politics for the next 20 years. Roosevelt's New Deal was followed by Harry Truman's Fair Deal; Republican Dwight Eisenhower (1952–1960) found it impossible to dismantle the New Deal agencies that had become an integral part of American society. Democratic dominance collapsed in the 1960s. Young radicals turned away from liberalism in response to the Vietnam War, while moderate Democrats increasingly
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