This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Physics 2102 Jonathan Dowling Physics 2102
L ectu re 1 2
D C c ir c u it s , R C c ir c u it s How to Solve MultiLoop Circuits Step I: Simplify “Compile” Circuits
Resistors
Key formula: V=iR
In series: same current
Req=∑Rj In parallel: same voltage
1/Req= ∑1/Rj Capacitors
Q=CV
same charge
1/Ceq= ∑1/Cj
same voltage
Ceq=∑Cj Step II: Apply Loop Rule
Around every loop add +E if you cross a battery from
minus to plus, –E if plus to minus, and –iR for each
resistor. Then sum to Zero: +E1 –E2 – iR1 – iR2 = 0. E1 +
– R1
+
– R2 C o n s e r v a t io n o f E N E R G Y ! E2 Step II: Apply Junction Rule
At every junction sum the ingoing currents and outgoing
currents and set them equal. i1 = i2 + i3
i1 i2 i3 Conservation of CHARGE! Step III: Equations to Unknowns
Continue Steps I–III until you have as
many equations as unknowns!
Given: E1 , E2 , i , R1 , R2 +E1 –E2 – i1R1 – i2 R2 = 0
and
i = i 1 + i2 Solve for i2 , i3 Example
Find the equivalent resistance between points
(a) F and H and
(b) F and G.
(Hint: For each pair of points, imagine that a battery
is connected across the pair.) Compile R’s in Series
Compile equivalent R’s in Parallel Example
Assume the batteries are ideal, and have
emf E1=8V, E2=5V, E3=4V, and
R1=140Ω, R2=75Ω and R3=2Ω.
What is the current in each branch?
What is the power delivered by each
battery?
Which point is at a higher potential, a or
b?
Apply loop rule three times
and junction rule twice. Example
• What’s the current
through resistor R1?
• What’s the current
through resistor R2?
• What’s the current
through each battery?
Apply loop rule three times
and junction rule twice. NonIdeal Batteries
• You have two ideal identical batteries, and a
resistor. Do you connect the batteries in series or
in parallel to get maximum current through R?
• Does the answer change if you have nonideal (but
still identical) batteries? Apply loop and junction rules
until you have current in R. More Light Bulbs
• If all batteries are ideal,
and all batteries and light
bulbs are identical, in
which arrangements will
the light bulbs as bright as
the one in circuit X?
• Does the answer change if
batteries are not ideal? C a lc u la t e i a n d V a c r o s s e a c h b u lb .
P = i V = “ b r ig h t n e s s”
or
C a lc u la t e e a c h i w it h R ’ s t h e s a m e :
P = i2R RC Circuits: Charging a Capacitor
In these circuits, current will change for a while, and then stay constant.
We want to solve for current as a function of time i(t).
The charge on the capacitor will also be a function of time: q(t).
The voltage across the resistor and the capacitor also change with time.
To charge the capacitor, close the switch on a.
E + VR(t)+VC(t) =0
E − i(t)R − q(t)/C = 0
E − (dq(t)/dt) R − q(t)/C =0
A differential equation for q(t)! The solution is:
q(t) = CE(1−e−t/RC)
And then i(t) = dq/dt= (E/R) e−t/RC
i(t)
E /R Time constant=RC RC Circuits: Discharging a Capacitor
+++
−−− Assume the switch has been closed
on a for a long time: the capacitor
will be charged with Q=CE. Then, close the switch on b: charges find their way across the circuit,
establishing a current.
VR+VC=0
−i(t)R+q(t)/C=0 => (dq/dt)R+q(t)/C=0
+
−C Solution: q(t)=q0e−t/RC=CEe−t/RC
i(t) = dq/dt = (q0/RC) e−t/RC = (E/R) e−t/RC
i(t)
E /R Example
The three circuits below are connected to the same
ideal battery with emf E. All resistors have
resistance R, and all capacitors have capacitance C.
•Which capacitor takes the longest in getting
charged?
•Which capacitor ends up with the largest charge?
• What’s the final current delivered by each battery?
•What happens when we disconnect the battery?
Compile R’s into
into Req. Then apply charging
formula with ReqC = τ. Example
In the figure, E = 1 kV, C = 10 µF, R1 = R2 = R3 = 1
MΩ. With C completely uncharged, switch S is
suddenly closed (at t = 0).
• What’s the current through each resistor at t=0?
• What’s the current through each resistor after a long
time?
How long is a long time?
Compile R1, R2, and R3
into Req. Then apply
discharging formula with
ReqC = τ. ...
View
Full
Document
 Fall '10
 DOWLING
 Physics, Current

Click to edit the document details