lecture2

# lecture2 - Physics 2102 Gabriela Gonzlez Physics 2102...

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Physics 2102 Introduction to Electricity, Magnetism and Optics Physics 2102 Gabriela González Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806)

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negative electron cloud nucleus of positive protons, uncharged neutrons Z = atomic number = # of protons = # of electrons in a neutral atom A = mass number = # of protons (Z) + # of neutrons (N) electron charge = e = - 1.6 x 10-19 Coulombs = - proton charge electron mass = 9.10938188 × 10-31 kilograms proton mass = 1.67262158 × 10-27 kilograms = neutron mass Atomic structure
In a conductor , electrons move around freely, forming a “sea” of electrons. This is why metals conduct electricity. Charges can be “induced” (moved around) in conductors. Charges in solids Blue background  = mobile electrons Red circles = static positive charge (nuclei) - - + +

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Insulating solids In an insulator , each electron cloud is tightly bound to the protons in a nucleus. Wood, glass, rubber . Note that the electrons are not free to move throughout the lattice, but the electron cloud can “distort” locally. + -
How to charge an object An object can be given some “excess” charge: giving electrons to it (we give it negative charge) or taking electrons away (we “give” it positive

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## This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course PHYSICS 2102 taught by Professor Dowling during the Fall '10 term at LSU.

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lecture2 - Physics 2102 Gabriela Gonzlez Physics 2102...

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