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Culture and Psychology Chapter 8

Culture and Psychology Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Culture and...

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Chapter 8: Culture and Emotion The Evolution of Human Emotion Feelings (subjective experience) are a part of emotion, but not emotion itself Def: transient, neurophysiological response to a stimulus that excites a coordinated system of components (includes subjective feelings, expressive behavior, physiological reactions, action tendencies, and cognition); they inform us about our relationship to the stimulus and prepare us to deal with it in some way Many theoretical models of emotion but most have similarities, fig. 8.1 on pg 199 Emotions are: Quick; lasting only a few seconds or minutes (not moods) Functional; tell us something important about our relationship to stimulus, prepare our bodies for action and have important social meanings Help us solve complex social coordination problems Evolved to allow for many fine distinctions and to be associated with self-reflective processes Self-conscious emotions: shame, guilt, pride, and embarrassment Only humans possess moral version of disgust (from our construct or morality) May also lie about emotions (express when they do not feel or express a different emotion) Universality in Emotion- The Basic Emotions Perspective Humans share a common base of emotion with nonhuman primate relatives Basic Emotions -anger, disgust, fear, enjoyment, sadness and surprise -expressed universally in all humans via facial expressions -brought about by same types of underlying psychological elicitors -associated with unique physiological signatures in both the central and autonomic nervous systems The Original Universality Studies Charles Darwin suggested facial expressions of emotion are biologically innate and evolutionarily adaptive Facial expressions have both a communicative and adaptive value Margaret mead and birdwhistell suggested that facial expressions had to be learned (like language) Methodologically sound studies conducted in 1960’s finally laid the debate to rest; six emotions found to be universal in all cultures (universality studies, pictures of faces) via studies that included both literate and preliterate cultures
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A fourth study proved that spontaneous expression of these emotions was also universal Universality in Emotion Antecedents (aka elicitors) Events or situations that trigger or elicit an emotion (i.e. losing a loved one, getting an “A”) Culture of origin does not affect classification of antecedents; they appear to be universal Many similarities exist also in the relative frequency with which each of the antecedent
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Culture and Psychology Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Culture and...

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