PHYS 1501 A&P Notes (Dr. Boyleston)

PHYS 1501 A&P Notes (Dr. Boyleston) - ANATOMY &...

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WEDNESDAY 4/4/07 Organs – have recognizable shape, two or more different types of tissue, specific functions o Examples: Stomach Heart Liver Systems – two or more organs Organism – two or more systems How many SYSTEMS in human body? 11 o SLIM RUD NECR 1. Skeletal 2. Lymphatic 3. Integumentary (skin) 4. Muscular 5. Respiratory 6. Urinary 7. Digestive 8. Nervous 9. Endocrine 10.Cardiovascular 11.Reproductive DR. BOYLESTON MONDAY 11-1PM & WEDNESDAY 1-3PM
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LIFE PROCESSES Metabolism – the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the human body o Breaks down large complex molecules into smaller and simpler ones Homeostasis – a condition in which the body’s internal environment remains within certain physiological limits o Range in which the body’s functions work well o Relatively steady state of the internal environment of the body o All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis o Controlled mainly by the nervous system and the endocrine system Nervous system responds rapidly Endocrine system responds slower But still just as effective as the nervous system Controlled by the nervous system o Stress – any internal or external stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment Usually considered to be negative Can be positive (ex. Pull of gravity helps maintain bone density, exercise builds muscle, chiro. Adj.) Some degree of stress can keep us alert – athletic competition DR. BOYLESTON MONDAY 11-1PM & WEDNESDAY 1-3PM
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o Feedback system (loop) Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually reported back to a central control region Negative feedback system Most common type used by the body Needs frequent monitoring Reverses the direction from change back toward direction of homeostasis “NO” – the human body is saying no ex. Cardiovascular system – blood pressure ex. Body temperature – fever ex. Blood sugar (serum glucose) levels Positive feedback system For conditions that do not occur often Do not require continual fine tuning Used less frequently by the body Continues change away from homeostasis “POSITIVE” – the human body saying yes ex. Oxytocin – tells the uterus to contract to keep pushing the fetus down the birth canal ex. blood clotting mechanism ex. White blood cells fighting invading organisms DR. BOYLESTON MONDAY 11-1PM & WEDNESDAY 1-3PM
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Anatomical positions and regional names o Directional terms definitions Superior – toward the head (aka cephalic; cephalad) Inferior – away from the head (aka caudal; caudad) Anterior – near or at the front of the body (aka ventral) Posterior – near or at the back of the body (aka dorsal) Medial – nearer to the midline of the body Lateral – farther from the midline of the body Ipsilateral
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2011 for the course PHYS 1501 taught by Professor Mercynavis during the Summer '10 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PHYS 1501 A&P Notes (Dr. Boyleston) - ANATOMY &...

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