PHYS 1501 The Cardiovascular System Notes #2

PHYS 1501 The Cardiovascular System Notes #2 -...

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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Heart o 2/3 of the hear tlies to the left of the body’s midline o base of the heart is superiorward o apex is inferiorly oblique with the point directed toward the left hip tip of left ventricle o about 12cm pericardium o encloses the heart o consists of loose-fitting serous membrane heart has some room inside there o has 2 main portions divided into 3 layers o main portions are: fibrous pericardium on the outside tough, fibrous connective tissue rests on and adheres to the diaphragm serous pericardium has two subdividisions o parietal pericardium fused to the fibrous pericardium o visceral pericardium aka epicardium thinner and more delicate adheres to muscle of the heart potential space in between 2 layers between 2 layers is serous fluid called pericardial fluid o fluid build up around the heart causes compression o heart wall divided into 3 layers epicardium myocardium cardiac muscle tissue responsible for contractions of the heart fibers are involuntary, striated and branched each fiber contacts its adjacent fiber by intercalated discs within the discs are gap junctions
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o the gap junctions are electrical synapses o the gap junctions spread the electrical impulses that cause the heart to act as a syncytium (in unison) endocardium chambers of the heart o divided into 4 cavities o right and left atria two upper chambers atria are separated by a partition known as the interatrial septum o right and left ventricles two lower chambers separated by a partition known as the interventricular septum great vessels of the heart o there are three large vessels associated with the heart o consists of 2 veins and 1 artery o superior vena cava – vein o inferior vena cava – vein o aorta – artery valves of the heart o in a healthy heart, valves only permit blood to flow in one direction o internally atria and ventricles are separated by connective tissue forms valves therefore, two separated muscle masses atrioventricular valves (aka AV valves) located between atria and ventricles right AV valve (aka tricuspid valve ) left AV valve (aka bicuspid valve aka mitral valve ) ***relative to the human body, 3 is on the right, 2
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2011 for the course PHYS 1501 taught by Professor Mercynavis during the Summer '10 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PHYS 1501 The Cardiovascular System Notes #2 -...

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