PUBH 1515 Public Health Week 4 Chapter 4 and 5

PUBH 1515 Public Health Week 4 Chapter 4 and 5 - Chapter 4...

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Chapter 4 Epidemiology and Prevention of Selected Acute Illnesses General Methods of Control and Prevention ! There are three methods of control for a disease: 1. Eliminating the disease-causing agent ! Chemotherapeutic = kills the biologic agents internally. ! Disinfectants = kills organisms outside the body. Common disinfectant is a 1:10 solution of household bleach and water ! Chlorination = used in water supply to control microorganisms. ! Heat = used to pasteurize milk, inactivate botulinal toxin and sterilize certain equipment. 2. Preventing the organism from multiplying to a level which can cause a disease. 3. Eliminating the reservoir so the disease has no place to multiply. ! Isolation or quarantine is used to isolate the agent that causes the disease not just the patient ! Direct transmission is the transfer of an organism directly from one person to another. ! Direct transmission can be blocked by the following processes: 1. Hand washing = the most important procedure for preventing the spread of most infections. 2. Protective apparel = used to protect the health care worker from the bodily fluids which might be present from a patient. 3. Protective apparel includes: a. Gloves b. Gowns c. Masks d. Protective eye wear ! Indirect transmission can be avoided by: 1. Avoid bites from arthropod vectors (ticks) 2. Avoid disease spread by common vehicles 3. Proper canning, preparation, serving and storage of food ! Canning requires a processing temperature of 250 degrees F or higher to destroy the spores of Clostridium botulinum. ! Poultry must be heated to an internal temperature of 165 degrees F to help prevent Salmonella. ! Steam serving tables should maintain a minimum temperature of 140 degrees F. ! Refrigeration should have temperatures below 45 degrees F. ! When Staphylococcus enterotoxin is found in food, the food must be thrown out because the enterotoxin cannot be inactivated by heat. ! Good health habits such as rest, exercise and a balanced diet may protect a person from diseases however there is no proof if they do or do not. ! It is important to take care of your skin because it is an effective barrier against all biologic
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agents. Immunobiologic Agents ! Vaccine is a suspension of attenuated live or killed microorganisms given to induce immunity. ! Common vaccines are: 1. Live attenuated viral vaccines = measles, mumps, rubella, polio 2. Killed or fractionated viral vaccines = influenza, hepatitis B, rabies 3. Killed or fractionated bacterial vaccines = cholera, meningococcal, pneumococcal ! Toxiod is a modified bacterial toxin which has been rendered nontoxic but still has the ability to stimulate the formation of antitoxin such as tetanus toxoids. ! Immunoglobulin (IG) is a sterile solution of human antibodies used for passive immunization.
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2011 for the course PHYS 1501 taught by Professor Mercynavis during the Summer '10 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PUBH 1515 Public Health Week 4 Chapter 4 and 5 - Chapter 4...

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