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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Occupational Environment • Impairment is described as the loss of function of the human body. • Disability is how an impairment effects an individuals ability to function in society. • Ergonomics is the study and development of tailored living and work environments designed for efficiency, safety, and individual well being. • "Right to know" refers to a worker's ethical and legal rights to be able to obtain all the information about the workplace hazards to which they may be potentially exposed. • Toxicology is the study of the relationship of external substances and their effects on the human body. • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the U.S. Labor Department and was founded in 1970. Their jurisdiction covers all non-governmental workplaces. Its goal is to assure a safe and healthful workplace for all Americans. • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is an agency of the government whose goal is to provide advice on specific state based safety issues. According to the NIOSH some 154 people die each day in the U.S. due to workplace hazards. • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an agency that is a separate branch of the federal government and was founded in 1970. Its goal is to provide research, standards, and enforcement of regulations as they pertain to protecting human health in the environment. Heat Cramps • Predisposing factors: 1. Young adults 2. Strenuous activity w'-without training 3. High temperature or high humidity or acclimation • Characterized by: 1. Nausea 2. Muscle twitching 3. Muscle cramps 4. Normal or slight temperature 5. Diaphoresis Heat Exhaustion • Predisposing factors: 1. Young adult 2. Physical active without being acclimatized 3. High temperature and humidity 4. Decreased heat dissipation • Characterized by: 1. Excessive thirst 2. Cold clammy skin 3. Nausea/vomiting 4. Decreased blood pressure 5. Ashen gray appearance 6. Dehydration with muscle cramps 7. Weakness with rapid and thready pulse 8. Core temperature greater than 38 degrees C. Heat stroke • A life threatening condition • Predisposing factors: 1. High humidity and high temperature without wind 2. Inactive individuals on medication, which affects heat regulation 3. Inactive individuals who have cardiovascular disease 4. Exertional heatstroke involves a healthy individual performing a strenuous activity • Characterized by: 1. Hypertension followed by hypotension 2. Altered mental status 3. Atrial or ventricular tachycardia 4. Core temperature greater than 41 degrees C. 5. Hot, dry, red, skin 6. Irritable and delirious 7. Dizziness and loss of consciousness 8. Dilated pupils 9. Cheyne-Stokes breathing Metal Fume Fever (influenza like illness) results from the inhalation of fumes: • Characterized by: 1. Iron 2. Nickel 3. Copper 4. Zinc Sick Building Syndrome (Indoor air pollution) results from working in an office building where the air is continually recirculating without the exchange of outside air.where the air is continually recirculating without the exchange of outside air....
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- Summer '10