38008443-Impact-of-Jet

# 38008443-Impact-of-Jet - Swinburne University of Technology...

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Swinburne University of Technology School of Engineering (Sarawak Campus) HES 2340 Fluid Mechanics 1 Semester 2, 2008 Lab Sheet: IMPACT OF JET Name: Student ID: Group Number: Date performed experiment: Lab supervisor: 1

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OBJECTIVE 1. To determine the reaction force produced by the impact of jet of water on to variety type of target vanes. 2. To experimentally determine the force required to keep a target at a datum level while it is subjected to the impact of water jet. 3. The experimentally measured force is compare with the theoretical calculated force APPARATUS REQUIRED Impact of jet apparatus with hydraulic bench 1.1 Parts Identification Weight Carrier Brass Weights Weight Platform Water Supply Connection Pointer Interchangeable Target Vane Interchangeable Nozzle Drain holes in base Figure 1: Impact of Jets Apparatus 2
60º A) Flat Target B) Conical Target C) Semi-Spherical Target Ø 30 Ø 30 Ø 30 120º Ø 30 D) 60 ° Plate Target Figure 2: Interchangeable Target Vanes 2.0SUMMARY OF THEORY 2.1 General Analysis When a jet of water flowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface, the water is deflected to flow along the surface. Unlike the impact of solid bodies, there is no rebound and unless the flow is highly turbulent, there will be no splashing. If friction is neglected by assuming an inviscid fluid and it is also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks then the magnitude of the water velocity is unchanged, the pressure exerted by the water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right angles to the surface. Newton’s second law of motion states that a mass that is accelerated required a force that is equal to the product of the mass and acceleration. In fluid mechanics, whenever fluid are forced to go through a restriction or change direction. The analogy to Newton’s second law in fluid mechanics is known as the momentum equation. 3 X F

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θ Vi Vi Vi Vi cos θ Vi sin θ Vi Figure 3: Impact of a Jet Consider a jet of water which impacts on to a target surface causing the direction of the jet to be changed through and angle θ as shown in Figure 3 above. In the absence of friction, the magnitude of the velocity across the surface is equal to the incident velocity V i . The impulse force exerted on the target will be equal and opposite to the force which acts on the water to impart the change in direction. Applying Newton’s Second law in the direction of the incident jet ) V - (V M V M F - Velocity in Change Rate Flow Mass on Accelerati Mass Force in X, out X, . . X = = × = × = ( 29 ( 29 cos - 1 V M F V - cos V M F - i . X i i . X θ = = But . M = ρ . Q therefore θ) cos (1 Q ρ F V i . - = 4 Impact Velocity, V i Exit Velocity, V n Height, h
And dividing trough by V i . Q

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## This note was uploaded on 11/19/2011 for the course HES 2340 taught by Professor Tomedwards during the Three '09 term at Swinburne.

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38008443-Impact-of-Jet - Swinburne University of Technology...

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