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behaviororg - Species-typical behavior or fixed action...

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Behavioral Hierarchy Reflexes predictable, stereotyped response to stimulus graded responses involve relatively few neurons circuits (reflex arcs) localized in "segmental" regions (spinal cord, brainstem) Simple rhythmic behaviors respiration, locomotion, chewing, etc. circuits (central pattern generators) localized in "segmental" regions (spinal cord, brainstem) Kineses change in rate of movement act on central pattern generators changes in activity in brainstem "command" circuits of vertebrates + or -, e.g. insects slow down in warm, moist places Taxes oriented change in movement act on central pattern generators changes in activity in brainstem "command" circuits directed by sensory input + or - klinotaxis (single receptor compares stimulus over time) tropotaxis (paired receptors--simultaneous comparison) telotaxis (toward a goal--e.g. swim toward shore) not well studied in vertebrates
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Unformatted text preview: Species-typical behavior, or fixed action patterns complex sequences of behavior common to all members of a species require minimal learning--often referred to as instinctive or innate e.g. courtship behaviors, aggressive displays, nest-building, maternal behavior, etc. focus has been on "releasing stimuli" rather than on organization of behavior itself neural mechanisms not clear, but must include some subcortical forebrain Motivated behaviors goal directed response to physiologically meaningful stimulus terminated by consummatory response approach (+) or withdraw (-) Learned (may be same as motivated) Non-associative habituation sensitization Associative Classical or Pavovian conditioning Operant conditioning or instrumental learning Latent learning learning by observation (vicarious learning) learning by performance without reward...
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