CEP Study Guide Exam 1 Answers
three major simultaneous changes in drug
1) the social and psychological basis of the attraction to a
particular drug can be explained as feeling rewarded or satisfied from social pressures that have become
postponed, momentarily rectified, or neutralized and defined as nonproblematic. 2) Pharmacologically, the use
of such a drug alters body chemistry largely by interfering with (affecting) its proper (homeostatic) functioning.
Drugs enhance, slow down, or distort the reception and transmission of reality. 3) the desire may satisfy and
inborn or genetically programmed need or desire.
How does a drug affect the body? How do drug ingredients interact with the
body and the nervous system?
How do societal views, determined by custom and tradition, affect our initial approach
to drug use?
What are the specific reasons why a drug is taken (curing an illness, self-medicating, peer
pressure, family upbringing, membership in drug-abusing subcultures, etc)? Peer pressure, stress etc
How do physical surroundings (rock concerts, nightclubs, or fraternity and sorority
parties) affect drug use? Tailgating, weddings, bars
18–20 age category report the most illicit drug use. Native American /Alaska Native 13.7%.
Males were more likely than females among persons age 12 or older to be current illicit drug users. The rate of
past-month marijuana use for males was about twice as high for males as the rate for females.
College graduates (5.9%) had the lowest rate of current use, while those who did not complete high school
(9.2%) had the highest use of illicit drugs.
Unemployed persons (18.5%) have a greater
tendency to use more illicit-types of drugs than people gainfully employed (8.8% full-time and 9.4% part-time
The rate of illicit drug use is highest in large metropolitan areas for the general
population than the rate in non-metropolitan counties.
33% of state prisoners and 25% of
federal prisoners reported that they had committed their offenses while under the influence of drugs.
Major types of commonly abused drugs
: Alcohol (ethanol), Nicotine (all forms of tobacco), Stimulants
(Amphetamines, Cocaine, Crack, Caffeine, and Nicotine), Hallucinogens/Psychedelics (LSD, Mescaline,
Peyote, Psilocybin (“magic mushrooms”), Depressants (Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Valium, and Alcohol)
Erich Goode’s Four Types of Drug Use:
Legal instrumental use
—taking prescribed drugs or OTC drugs to
relieve or treat mental or physical symptoms,
Legal recreational use
—using licit drugs like tobacco, alcohol,
and caffeine to achieve a certain mental state
, Illegal instrumental use
—taking non-prescribed drugs to achieve
a task or goal,
Illegal recreational use
—taking illicit drugs for fun or pleasure
Three types of drug users