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Bio Lectures - Lecture 6 Chapter 7 Energy Metabolism Matter...

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Lecture 6 – C h apter 7: E nergy & M e tab o li s m Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space A . E nergy capacity to do work (measured in kilojoules or kilocalories)…KJ – units of energy, it can also be expressed in units of heat energy Kcal. Po t en ti al E nergy – stored energy, capacity to do work as a result of position or state K i ne ti c E nergy – energy of motion- work performed Che mi c a l E nergy – potential energy of chemical bonds; powers many life processes - Mechanical energy: which performs work by moving matter B. T her m odyna m i cs – study of energy and its transformations System : refer to an object that they are studying…biological systems are open systems C l o s ed S y s t em – does not exchange energy with its surroundings O pen Sy s t em – does exchange energy with its surroundings Organism can’t produce energy, but as open systems they can capture it Maintain organization only with input of energy from surroundings ---- 1 st L aw of T her m odyna m i cs energy in the universe is constant; it can’t be created or destroyed but it can be transferred and changed in form ***a system may absorb energy from its surroundings, or it may give up some energy to its surroundings, but the total energy content of that system plus its surroundings is always the same, BUT THE TOTAL ENERGY CONTENT OF THAT SYSTEMS PLUS ITS SURRONDINGS IS ALWAYS THE SAME 2 nd L aw of T her m odyna m i cs during energy conversions, some useful energy is lost as heat, random motion that contributes to entropy, or disorder…energy avalible to do work – is converted into heat that disperses into the surroundings HEAT : is the kenetic energy of randomly moving particles. Unlike heat energy, which flows from an obj with a higher temp to one with a lower temperature —amount of useable energy avb to do work in the unv decreases over time Less useable energy is more diffuse, or disorganized,. Entropy (s) is a measure of this disorder or randomness; organized, useable energy has a low entropy, whereas disorganized energy, such as heat, has a high entropy. Energy & Metabolism Metabolism : is the sum of all the chemical activates taking place in an organism Anabolism : includes the various pathways in which complex molecules are syn. From simpler substances, such as in the linking of amino acids to form proteins Catabolism : includes the pathways in which larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones, such as in the degradation of starch to form monosaccharide common link between exergonic & endergonic reactions common link between catabolism & anabolism ca t abo l i s m – degradation of large complex molecules into simple molecules anabo li s m – synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules Components of m e t abo li s m – all the chemical reactions of a living organism
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Enthalpy is the total potential energy of a system Bond energy : defined as the energy required to break that bond. The total bond
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