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chapter 8 LEC - Lecture 7 Chapter 8 How Cells Make ATP...

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Lecture 7 – C h apter 8: H ow C e ll s Make A TP Catabolism: --releases energy by splitting complex molecules into smaller components Anabolism: the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler building blocks Most anabolic reactions are endergonic and require ATP or some other energy source to drive them The catabolic processes that convert the energy in chemical bonds of nutrients to chemical energy stored in ATP then occur inside cells, ---cellular respiration Cellular respiration may be either aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic respiration requires O2, whereas anaerobic pathways, which include anaerobic respiration and fermentation, do not require O2 A . Ce ll u l ar Re s p i ra ti on plants convert CO 2 into organic compounds, & animals, plants and fungi convert organic compounds back into CO 2 the catabolic processes that convert the energy stored in ATP then occur inside cells 2 types: aerobic & anaerobic respiration B. A erob i c Re s p i ra ti on - During aerobic respiration, nutrients are catabolized to carbon dioxide and water. Most cells use aerobic respiration to obtain energy from glucose Glucose + O 2 → CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O → 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + energy (3638 ATP) (172 pg) Involved redox reactions since glucose is oxidized & oxygen is reduced the cell can obtain the most energy from NADH -During this process, the free energy of the electrons is coupled to ATP synthesis -The chemical reactions of the aerobic respiration of glucose are grouped into four stages -------Glycolysis, the first stage of aerobic respiration occurs in the cytosol, 2> Pyruvate, the product of glycolysis, enters a mitochondrion, where cellular respiration continues with the formation of acetyl CoA, 3> the citric acid cycle and 4> electrons transport and chemiosmosis. Most ATP is synthesized by the chemiiosmosis ============Most reactions involved in aerobic respiration are one of three types : dehydrogenations, decarboxlations, and those …prepation rxnx. Dehydrgenations : are reactions in which two hydrogen atoms are removed from the substrate and transferred to NAD+ or FAD. Decarboxylations: are reactions in which part of a carboxyl group (- COOH) is removed from the substrate as a molecule of CO2….the rest of the rxn are preparation reactions in which molecules undergo rearrangements and other changes so that….
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G l yco l y s i s - “refers to the fact that the sugar glucose is metabolized….doesnt require oxygen and proceeds under aerobic or anaerobic conditions Pyruvate: a three carbon molecule. Some of the energy in the glucose is captured, there is a net yield of two ATP molecules and two NADH molecules. The reaction of glycolysis take place in the cytosol, where the necessary reactants, such as ADP, NADP+ and inorganic phosphate, float freely and are used as needed.
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