Management of Quality
MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY
Quality is defined as the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or
exceed customer expectations.
Operational definitions of quality generally refer to one or more
dimensions of quality.
For products, these include performance, special features, conformance to
expectations, reliability, durability, service after delivery, aesthetics, safety, and perceived quality.
For services these include, tangibles, convenience, reliability, responsiveness, time, assurance,
An organization's reputation for superior quality can give it a competitive
advantage in the marketplace.
Superior quality can enhance the reputation of the firm, increase
its market share, increase the loyalty of the customers, reduce the risk of liability claims, reduce
costs, and increase productivity.
The consequences of poor quality relate to loss of business, deterioration of the
firm’s reputation, product liability and higher costs and expenses.
Costs can be categorized as
failure costs, appraisal costs, and prevention costs.
Quality can be improved by R & D efforts, by efforts of improvement
teams, and by suggestions from employees and customers.
Evolution of Quality.
Modern quality management stresses prevention of mistakes rather than
finding and correcting mistakes after they occur.
This has placed increased emphasis on both
product design and process design.
Quality gurus such as Deming, Juran, Crosby, and Ishikawa have greatly
influenced current thinking and practice of quality management.
Deming is best known for his
‘14 points’ for achieving quality and is the namesake of the Deming Prize awarded by the
Japanese government to quality programs.
Crosby may be best known for the concept of zero
defects and ‘do it right the first time’, while Ishikawa championed tools such as cause-and-effect
diagrams and quality circles. Juran is recognized as one of the first to measure the ‘cost of
quality’ and viewed quality as ‘fitness for use.’
Quality awards, such as the Malcolm Baldrige Award and the Deming Prize
have generated interest in quality improvement, and helped to focus attention on the importance
They have also helped to educate business people on quality management.