Lec14+Energy+II - Energy, Chemistry and Society II Chapter...

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Energy, Chemistry and Society II Chapter 4
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Direct use of mechanical energy (water, wind) to turn the turbine eliminates the need for heat generation, and it is renewable. Delaware’s Energy Sources (Delmarva Power, 04/07)
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Optimum locations for wind power: percentage of land area estimated to have “class 3” or higher wind power http://rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/maps/chap2/2-10m.html
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4.3 History of U.S. Energy Consumption by Source 1800–2008 1 EJ = 10 18 J
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Fuels for Combustion Different fuels give off different amounts of energy when combusted.
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Fuels for Combustion Most heat generated per gram of fuel great for rocket fuel, and no CO 2 emission! Problem: It takes energy to make Hydrogen (H 2 ) and to compress it into a small volume (less volume per mass).
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Less H More H “Average” coal composition: C 135 H 96 O 9 NS N, S NO x , SO 2 acid rain, particulate matter More carbon per unit mass than any other fossil fuel means the largest amount of CO 2 emitted per gram of fuel Anthracite Lignite
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Petroleum (Crude Oil) Refining
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Methane (natural gas): present in crude oil reserves; can be made by “cracking” larger alkanes Propane and Butane : gas fuels that are easy to transport (liquids under pressure) Octane (and others): major components in gasoline
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Fractionation (separation into fractions): Distillation (evaporate at a high temperature and re-condense at a lower temperature Energy required to heat crude oil and separate the components!
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84% of total used as an energy source
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This note was uploaded on 11/20/2011 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Vanleer,m during the Spring '08 term at University of Delaware.

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Lec14+Energy+II - Energy, Chemistry and Society II Chapter...

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