chapt08_lecture

chapt08_lecture - 8-1Chapter 8Electron Configuration and...

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Unformatted text preview: 8-1Chapter 8Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity8-2Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity8.1Development of the Periodic Table8.2Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table8.4Trends in Some Key Periodic Atomic Properties8.5The Connection Between Atomic Structure and ChemicalReactivity8-3Mendeleevs PredictedProperties of Germanium (eka Silicon) and Its Actual PropertiesTable 8.1PropertyPredicted Properties of eka Silicon(E)Actual Properties of Germanium (Ge)atomic massappearancedensitymolar volumespecific heat capacityoxide formulaoxide densitysulfide formula and solubilitychloride formula (boiling point)chloride densityelement preparation72 amugray metal5.5 g/cm313 cm3/mol0.31 J/g.KEO24.7 g/cm3ES2; insoluble in H2O; soluble in aqueous (NH4)2SECl4; (< 100 oC)1.9 g/cm3reduction of K2EF6with sodium72.61 amugray metal5.32 g/cm313.65 cm3/mol0.32 J/g.KGeO24.23 g/cm3GeS2; insoluble in H2O; soluble in aqueous (NH4)2SGeCl4; (84 oC)1.844 g/cm3reduction of K2GeF6with sodium8-4Figure 8.1Observing the Effect of Electron Spin8-5Table 8.2 Summary of Quantum Numbers of Electrons in AtomsNameSymbolAllowed ValuesPropertyprincipalnpositive integers (1, 2, 3,)orbital energy (size)angular momentumlintegers from 0 to n-1orbital shape (lvalues of 0, 1, 2 and 3 correspond to s, p, dand forbitals, respectively.)magneticmlintegers from -lto 0 to +lorbital orientationspinms+1/2 or -1/2direction of e-spinEach electron in an atom has its own unique set of four (4) quantum numbers.8-6The Pauli Exclusion PrincipleNo two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbersAn atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electronsand they must have opposite spins (paired spins)8-7Figure 8.2Spectral evidence of energy-level splitting in many-electron systemsLeads to the splittingof energy levels into sublevels of differing energies:the energy of an orbital depends mostly on its nvalue (size) and somewhaton its lvalue (shape)Many-electron atoms: have nucleus-electron and electron-electroninteractions8-8Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital Energies1. Additional electron in the same orbitalAn additional electron raises the orbital energy through electron-electron repulsions.2. Additional electrons in inner orbitalsInner electrons shield outer electrons more effectively than do electrons in the same sublevel.Higher nuclear charge lowers orbital energy (stabilizes the system) by increasing nucleus-electron attractions.Effect of nuclear charge (Zeffective)Effect of electron repulsions (shielding)8-9The effect of nuclearchargeFigure 8.3Greater nuclear chargelowers orbital energy8-10Figure 8.4The effect of another electron in the same orbitalQuickTime and aPhoto - JPEG decompressorare needed to see this picture....
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chapt08_lecture - 8-1Chapter 8Electron Configuration and...

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