Lecture 18; 9-30 - They can accept one or two electrons and...

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ATP Can serve as both a substrate (be consumed in a reaction) or can serve as an allosteric effector. (Figure 4.18). As a substrate, ATP is a source of activated phosphate as is utilized by kinases, like glucokinase which catalyzes the reaction below: Glucose + ATP - -> glucose-6- phosphate + ADP
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NAD+ Niacin is converted to cofactors (NAD+ and NADP+; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)) involved in oxidoreductase reactions. They accept or donate 2-electrons in the form of hydrides with sterospecificity. Alcohol dehydrogenase is NAD dependent.
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FMN and FAD. Flavin mononucleotide and flavin dinucleotide are derived from riboflavin.
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Unformatted text preview: They can accept one or two electrons and are often covalently attached to enzymes as prosthetic groups. Succinic dehydrogenase is FAD dependent. Metal Cofactors Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu all can act as Lewis acids (electron sinks in empty d orbital) (carbonic anhydrase), can permit structural elements to form in proteins, can aid in substrate binding (MgATP) or stabilize a transition state (carboxypeptidase). Metals can also serve in electron transfer reactions. Pyridoxal Phosphate (Vitamin B6) is important for amino acid metabolism including amino transferase reactions and decarboxylations....
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Lecture 18; 9-30 - They can accept one or two electrons and...

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