Lecture 25-28 - mitochondria metabolism

Lecture 25-28 - mitochondria metabolism - Mitochondria...

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Mitochondria metabolism
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Outer membrane – 40% lipid, 60% protein Rich in PORIN - channel for cmpds < 10,000 Da Inner membrane – 20% lipid, 80% protein - rich in cardiolipin Cristae – increase surface area Matrix – TCA cycle enzymes, FA oxidation, DNA, ribosomes
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Enzymatic Composition of the Various Mitochondrial Subcompartments Outer Membrane Intermembrane Space Inner Membrane Matrix Monoamine oxidase Adenylate kinase Succinate dehydrogenase Pyruvate dehydrogenase Kynurenine hydroxylase Nucleoside diphosphate kinase F1Fo ATP synthase Citrate synthase Nucleoside diphosphate kinase Creatine kinase NADH dehydrogenase Isocitrate dehydrogenase Phospholipase A α -Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase Fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Cytochromes b , c 1, c , a , a 3 Aconitase NADH: cytochrome- c reductase (rotenone-insensitive) Carnitine: acyl-CoA transferase Fumarase Succinyl-CoA synthetase Choline phosphotransferase Adenine nucleotide translocase Malate dehydrogenase Mono-, di-, and tricarboxylate translocase Fatty acid β- oxidation system Glutamate dehydrogenase Glutamate–aspartate translocase Glutamate–oxaloacetate transaminase Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase Ornithine transcarbamoylase Carbamoyl phosphate
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Electron Transport Chain . - Reducing equivalents are derived oxidation of fatty acids and the TCA cycle. - The reducing equivalents are transferred to NADH and FADH2, which are subsequently oxidized by the electron transport chain , a system of electron carriers located in the inner membrane. In the presence of O2, this system converts reducing equivalents into utilizable energy, as ATP, by the process of oxidative phosphorylation . The complete oxidation of NADH and FADH2 by the electron transport chain results in production of approximately 2.5 and 1.5 mol of ATP per mole of reducing equivalent transferred to O2, respectively.
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Oxidation–Reduction Reactions. The mitochondrial electron transport system is a sequence of linked oxidation–reduction reactions. Oxidation–reduction reactions occur when there is a transfer of electrons from a suitable electron donor (reductant) to a suitable electron acceptor (oxidant) . For example: In some oxidation–reduction reactions only electrons are transferred from reductant to oxidant (i.e., electron transfer between cytochromes), whereas in other types of reactions, both electrons and protons (hydrogen atoms) are transferred (e.g., electron transfer between NADH and FAD): Oxidized and reduced forms of compounds or groups operating in oxidation–reduction reactions are referred to as redox couples or pairs. The facility with which a given electron donor (reductant) gives up its electrons to an electron acceptor (oxidant) is expressed quantitatively as the oxidation–reduction potential of the system.
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An oxidation–reduction potential is measured in volts as an electromotive force (emf)
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This note was uploaded on 11/20/2011 for the course NS 3200 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Lecture 25-28 - mitochondria metabolism - Mitochondria...

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